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The Endocrine System

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  1. Controls many body functions exerts control by releasing special chemical substances into the blood called hormones Hormones affect other endocrine glands or body systems Derives its name from the fact that various glands release hormones directly into the blood, which in turn transports the hormones to target tissues via ducts. The Endocrine System

  2. Exocrine glands are glands that secrete their products into ducts. They are the counterparts to endocrine glands, which secrete their products directly into the bloodstream. The Endocrine System • Typical exocrine glands include sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and many glands of the digestive system.

  3. Consists of several glands located in various parts of the body. Pituitary gland: a small gland located on a stalk hanging from the base of the brain - AKA “The Master Gland” Primary function is to control other glands. Produces many hormones. Secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus in the base of the brain. The Endocrine System

  4. The Pituitary Gland is divided into 2 areas, which differ structurally and functionally each area has separate types of hormone production. The two segments are: Posterior Pituitary: produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Anterior Pituitary: produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) growth hormone (GH) adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) The Endocrine System

  5. And even more… luteinizing hormone (LH) prolactin Let’s go over these one at a time... Posterior Pituitary Oxytocin (the natural form of pitocin) stimulates gravid uterus causes “let down” of milk from the breast. ADH (vasopressin) causes the kidney to retain water. The Endocrine System

  6. Anterior Pituitary Primarily regulates other endocrine glands rarely a factor in endocrinological emergencies TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones, thus  metabolic rate Anterior Pituitary… Growth hormone (GH)  glucose usage  consumption of fats as an energy source ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones FSH & LH stimulates maturation & release of eggs from ovary. The Endocrine System

  7. The Thyroid Gland lies in the anterior neck just below the larynyx. Two lobes, located on either side of the trachea, connected by a narrow band of tissue called the isthmus. Sacs inside the gland contain colloid Within the colloid are the thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) When stimulated (by TSH or by cold), these are released into the circulatory system and  the metabolic rate. “C” cells within the thyroid produce the hormone calcitonin. The Endocrine System

  8. Calcitonin, when released, lowers the amount of calcium in the blood. Inadequate levels of thyroid hormones = hypothyroidism, or Myxedema. Myxedema symptoms: Facial bloating weakness cold intolerance lethargy altered mental status oily skin and hair TX: replacement of thyroid hormone. The Endocrine System

  9. Increased thyroid hormone release causes hyperthyroidism, commonly called Graves’ disease. Signs and symptoms: insomnia, fatigue tachycardia hypertension heat intolerance weight loss Long term hyperthyroidism: Exopthalmos bulging of the eyeballs (picture Barbara Bush) In severe cases - a medical emergency called thyrotoxicosis can result. The Endocrine System

  10. Parathyroid Glands small, pea-shaped glands, located in the neck near the thyroid usually 4 - number can vary regulate the level of calcium in the body produce parathyroid hormone -  level of calcium in blood Hypocalcemia can result if parathyroids are removed or destroyed. The Endocrine System

  11. Pancreas a key gland located in the folds of the duodenum has both endocrine and exocrine functions secretes several key digestive enzymes Islets of Langerhans specialized tissues in which the endocrine functions of the pancreas occurs include 3 types of cells: alpha ( ) beta () delta () each secretes an important hormone. The Endocrine System

  12. Alpha () cells release glucagon, essential for controlling blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels fall,  cells  the amount of glucagon in the blood . The surge of glucagon stimulates the liver to release glucose stores (from glycogen and additional storage sites). Also, glucagon stimulates the liver to manufacture glucose - gluconeogenesis. The Endocrine System

  13. Beta Cells () release insulin (antagonistic to glucagon). Insulin  the rate at which various body cells take up glucose. Thus, insulin lowers the blood glucose level. Insulin is rapidly broken down by the liver and must be secreted constantly. Delta Cells () produce somatostatin, which inhibits both glucagon and insulin. The Endocrine System

  14. Adrenal Glands 2 small glands that sit atop both kidneys. Each has 2 divisions, each with different functions. the Adrenal Medulla secretes the catecholamine hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine (closely related to the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system). The Endocrine System

  15. The Adrenal Cortex secretes 3 classes of hormones, all steroid hormones: gluticocorticoids mineralocorticoids androgenic hormones One at a time… gluticocorticoids: accounts for 95% of adrenal cortex hormone production  the level of glucose in the blood Released in response to stress, injury, or serious infection - like the hormones from the adrenal medulla. The Endocrine System

  16. Mineralocorticoids: work to regulate the concentration of potassium and sodium in the body. Prolonged  in adrenal cortex hormone results in Cushing’s Disease. Signs & Symptoms of Cushing’s Disease:  in blood sugar levels unusual body fat distribution rapid mood swings The Endocrine System

  17. And - if there is an  in mineralocorticoids as well A serious electolyte imbalance will occur due to the  potassium excretion by the kidney, which results in hypokalemia. Sodium can also be retained by the kidney, resulting in hyponatremia. Causes: dysrhythmias coma death usually results from a tumor - TX? Removal of tumor. The Endocrine System

  18. Gonads and Ovaries: the endocrine glands associated with human reproduction. Female ovaries produce eggs Male gonads produce sperm both have endocrine functions. Ovaries: located in the abdominal cavity adjacent to the uterus. Under the control of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary they manufacture estrogen protesterone The Endocrine System

  19. Estrogen and Progesterone have several functions, including sexual development and preparation of the uterus for implantation of the egg. Testes: located in the scrotum produce sperm for reproduction manufacture testosterone - promotes male growth and masculinization Controlled by anterior pituitary hormones FSH and LH. The Endocrine System

  20. Endocrine Emergencies: Diabetes Mellitus one of the most common diseases in North America.  insulin secretion by the Beta () cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Complications of Diabetes: contributes to heart disease stroke kidney disease blindness The Endocrine System

  21. Pathophysiology of Diabetes: Glucose Metabolism Glucose (dextrose) is a simple sugar required by the body to produce energy. Sugars, or carbohydrates, are 1 of 3 major food sources used by the body. The other 2 major food sources are proteins fats Most sugars in the human diet are complex and must be broken down into simple sugars: glucose, galactose and fructose - before use. The Endocrine System

  22. Breakdown of sugars is carried out by enzymes in the gastro intestinal system. As simple sugars, these are absorbed from the GE system into the body. More than 95% enter the body as glucose. To be converted into energy, glucose must first be transmitted through the cell membrane. BUT - the glucose molecule is large and doesn’t readily diffuse through the cell membrane. The Endocrine System

  23. Glucose must pass into the cell by binding to a special carrier protein on the cell’s surface. Facilitated diffusion - doesn’t use energy. The carrier protein binds with the glucose and carries it into the cell. The rate at which glucose can enter the cell is dependent upon insulin levels. Insulin serves as the messenger - travels via blood to target tissues. Combines with specific insulin receptors on the surface of the cell membrane. The Endocrine System