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Plant Science. A Unit of the Michigan State University Extension Master Gardener Curriculum. Plant Science. Topics. Plant science Plant growth and development Plant propagation. Plant Science. Plant Science. Botany Horticulture Agronomy Forestry. Plants - Physiology - Genetics

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slide1
Plant Science

A Unit of the

Michigan State University Extension

Master Gardener Curriculum

slide2
Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science
  • Plant growth and development
  • Plant propagation
plant science
Plant SciencePlant Science
  • Botany
  • Horticulture
  • Agronomy
  • Forestry
botany compared to horticulture
Plants

- Physiology

- Genetics

- Taxonomy

Cultivated plants

Ornamentals

Flowers

Vegetables

Fruit

Plant Science

Botany Compared to Horticulture
slide6
Plant Science

Flowers - Floriculture

slide7
Plant Science

Vegetables - Olericulture

slide8
Plant Science

Fruit - Pomology

plant science1
Plant SciencePlant Science
  • Anatomy - Structure
  • Physiology - Function
  • Morphology - Shape
what is a plant
Plant ScienceWhat Is a Plant?
  • Living organism
  • Contains chlorophyll
  • Can manufacture its own food
  • Multicellular with rigid cell walls
plant kingdom
Non-Vascular Plants

Vascular Plants

Plant Science

Plant Kingdom
vascular plants
Plant ScienceVascular Plants

Flowering

Angiosperms

Non-flowering

Gymnosperms

“Others”

slide13
Plant Science

Angiosperms

  • Monocots
  • Dicots
slide14
Plant Science

Cotyledons

  • Monocots
    • One
  • Dicots
    • Two
leaf venation
Monocots

Usually parallel

Dicots

Usually net-like

Plant Science

Leaf Venation
slide16
Plant Science

Flower Parts

  • Monocots
    • Usually in threes
  • Dicots
    • Usually four or five
slide17
Plant Science

Vascular System

  • Monocots
    • Complex arrangement
  • Dicots
    • Arranged in a ring
slide18
Plant Science

Physiological Differences

  • Monocots are not killed by broadleaf herbicides
  • Dicots will be killed by broadleaf herbicides
plant classification
Plant SciencePlant Classification
  • Family - Rosaceae
  • Genus - Rosa
  • Specific epithet - hybrida
  • Cultivar – ‘Nearly Wild’
common names
Plant ScienceCommon Names
  • Goutweed
  • Bishop’s Weed
  • Bishop’s Goutweed
  • Snow on the Mountain
binomial nomenclature
Plant ScienceBinomial Nomenclature
  • Developed by Carl von Linné in 1753
  • Two word name for each plant or animal
  • Genusname followed by a descriptive name or specific epithet
  • Together the two words identify a species
slide23
Plant Science

Binomial Nomenclature

Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’

cells tissues organs
Plant ScienceCells Tissues Organs

What Makes Up a Plant?

plant cell
Plant SciencePlant Cell

Cell wall

Plasma membrane

Vacuole

Chloroplast

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

slide26
Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs

plant tissues
Plant SciencePlant Tissues
  • Meristematic
  • Dermal
  • Vascular
slide28
Plant Science

Meristematic Tissues

  • Apical meristem
    • Located at the tip of a shoot or root
  • Lateral meristem
    • Formed in stems and roots of many plants
    • Allows plant to grow in diameter
    • Vascular cambium is a lateral meristem
dermal tissue
Plant ScienceDermal Tissue
  • Epidermis
    • Cuticle
    • Stomata
  • Periderm
    • Protective covering
    • Lenticels
vascular tissue
Plant ScienceVascular Tissue
  • Xylem
    • Conduct water and minerals within the plant
  • Phloem
    • Move food (carbohydrates) produced by photosynthesis to other parts of the plant
slide32
Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs

organ systems
Animals

Digestive

Circulatory

Endocrine

Plants

Root

Shoot

Plant Science

Organ Systems
plant organs
Plant SciencePlant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
root functions
Plant ScienceRoot Functions
  • Anchorage
  • Absorption
  • Storage
root type
Plant ScienceRoot Type

Fibrous

Tap

Tuberous

plant organs1
Plant SciencePlant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
stem function
Plant ScienceStem Function
  • Supports buds and leaves
  • Provides structure for vascular system
slide40
Plant Science

Stem Structure

  • Xylem
  • Phloem
  • Cambium

Cambium

Xylem

Phloem

stem structure
Plant ScienceStem Structure
  • Nodes
  • Internodes
  • Lenticels

Node

Internode

Node

stem type
Crowns

Tillers and stolens

Spurs

Tubers

Rhizomes

Corms

Bulbs

Plant Science

Stem Type
slide50
Plant Science

Stem Type

  • Crown
  • Tillers and stolens
  • Spur
  • Tuber
  • Rhizome
  • Corm
  • Bulb
  • Adaptations
stem modifications
Tendrils

Thorns

Plant Science

Stem Modifications
plant organs2
Plant SciencePlant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
bud structure
Plant ScienceBud Structure

Bud scales

Embryonic leaves

Shoot apex

types of buds
Plant ScienceTypes of Buds
  • Leaf bud
  • Flower bud
  • Terminal bud
  • Lateral bud
  • Adventitious bud
slide56
Plant Science

Flower Bud

slide57
Plant Science

Lateral and Terminal Buds

Terminal Bud

Lateral Bud

slide58
Plant Science

Adventitious Bud

plant organs3
Plant SciencePlant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
leaf functions
Plant ScienceLeaf Functions
  • Absorption
  • Protection
  • Reproduction
slide62
Plant Science

Internal Leaf Structure

slide63
Plant Science

Leaf Type

Simple

Compound

compound leaves
Plant ScienceCompound Leaves

Palmate

Odd Pinnate

Even Pinnate

(Horse Chestnut)

(Locust)

(Ash)

leaf venation1
Plant ScienceLeaf Venation

Parallel

Pinnate

Palmate

slide67
Plant Science

Leaf Margins

slide68
Plant Science

Leaf Arrangement

Whorled

Opposite

Alternate

slide69
Plant Science

Maple

  • Type?
  • Shape?
  • Venation?
  • Margin?
  • Arrangement?
slide70
Plant Science

Oak

  • Type?
  • Shape?
  • Venation?
  • Margin?
  • Arrangement?
slide71
Plant Science

Ash

  • Type?
  • Shape?
  • Venation?
  • Margin?
  • Arrangement?
slide72
Plant Science

Leaf Modifications

Barrel Cactus

White Pine

plant organs4
Plant SciencePlant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
slide76
Plant Science

Flower Type

Tulip

Queen Anne’s Lace

flower structure
Plant ScienceFlower Structure

Corolla

Receptacle

Sepals

flower structure1
Plant ScienceFlower Structure

Anther

Stigma

Style

Filament

slide79
Plant Science

Flower Structure

Stamen

Pistil

Ovary

Ovule

Ovary

flower function
Plant ScienceFlower Function
  • Pollination
    • Wind, water, animals
slide81
Plant Science

Flower Function

  • Pollination
    • Wind, water, animals
  • Fertilization
    • Union of the male sperm nucleus from the pollen grain and the female egg from the ovary
pollination adaptations
Plant SciencePollination Adaptations
  • Self-pollinating
  • Cross-pollinating
slide83
Plant Science

Monoecious Plants

Male

Female

slide84
Plant Science

Dioecious Plants

Female

Male

slide86
Plant Science

Fruit or Vegetable?

fruit structure
Plant ScienceFruit Structure

Ovary wall

(Fleshy part)

Fertilized ovules

(seeds)

fruit function
Plant ScienceFruit Function
  • Protects seeds as they develop
  • Keeps seeds moist
  • Acts as a dispersal mechanism
fruit types
Plant ScienceFruit Types
  • Simple
    • Apple
  • Aggregate
    • Raspberry
  • Multiple
    • Corn
slide91
Plant Science

Seed Type

slide94
Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science
  • Plant growth and development
  • Plant propagation
plant functions
Plant SciencePlant Functions
  • Photosynthesis
  • Respiration
  • Transpiration
photosynthesis
Plant SciencePhotosynthesis
  • Occurs in cells that contain chloroplasts
  • Uses water and carbon dioxide
  • Stores energy in the form of sugar
  • Occurs in light
respiration
Plant ScienceRespiration
  • Uses food and oxygen to release energy
  • Produces water and carbon dioxide
  • Occurs in dark as well as light
  • Occurs in all cells
transpiration
Plant ScienceTranspiration
  • Water loss through the stomata
  • Moves molecules through the plant
  • Cools leaf surfaces and moderates plant temperature
  • Maintains turgor (firmness)
plants their environment
Light

Temperature

Water

Humidity

Nutrition

Plant Science

Plants & Their Environment
light
Plant ScienceLight
  • Quantity (intensity)
  • Quality (wave length)
  • Duration (photoperiod)
slide101
Plant Science

Light Quantity Varies with

  • Time of day
  • Latitude
  • Time of year
  • Cloud density
  • Pollution
  • Moisture and haze
  • Elevation
  • Angle of the sun
slide102
Plant Science

Plant Morphology Changes with Light Intensity

  • Higher Light
  • More leaves
  • Shorter internodes
  • Leaves more vertical
  • Lower Light
  • Fewer leaves
  • Longer internodes
  • Leaves more horizontal
slide103
Plant Science

Plant Anatomy Changes with Light Intensity

  • Higher Light
  • Thicker leaves
  • More cell layers
  • More chloroplasts
  • Lower Light
  • Thinner leaves
  • Fewer cell layers
  • Fewer chloroplasts
slide104
Plant Science

Tight spacing, low light

Wide spacing, high light

slide106
Plant Science

Blue Light

  • Important for chlorophyll synthesis
  • Reduces stem elongation
  • Promotes greening of germinating seedlings
slide107
Plant Science

Red Light

  • Red light inhibits stem elongation and promotes branching
  • When combined with blue light encourages flowering and fruit set
slide108
Plant Science

Influence of Light Quality on Coreopsis lanceolata

Fluorescent

Incandescent

slide109
Plant Science

Photoperiodic Response

  • Short-day plants
    • Poinsettia, chrysanthemums
  • Long-day plants
    • Marigold, Rudbeckia, many vegetables
  • Day-neutral plants
    • Tomato, impatiens, African violet
temperature
Plant ScienceTemperature
  • Affects productivity and plant growth
  • Cold temperature requirements
  • Can be used to manipulate flowering and plant height
slide111
Plant Science

Temperature

+DIF

+DIF

Day cooler than night

-DIF

shorter plants

Day warmer than night

+DIF

taller plants

–DIF

–DIF

DT = day temperature

NT = night temperature

slide112
Plant Science

Cooling Duration Influences Flowering

plant genetics
Plant SciencePlant Genetics

Astilbe chinensis pumila

Astilbe chinensis ‘Superba’

plant hormones
Plant SciencePlant Hormones
  • Auxins
  • Gibberellins
  • Cytokinins
  • Ethylene
  • Abscisic acid
slide115
Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science
  • Plant growth and development
  • Plant propagation
slide116
Plant Science

Propagation Techniques

  • Seeds or spores
  • Division
  • Cuttings
  • Tissue culture
  • Grafting
  • Layering

Vegetative

propagation

plant life cycles
Plant SciencePlant Life Cycles

Annual

Perennial

Biennial

slide119
Plant Science

Seed

  • Advantages
    • Often the easiest and least-expensive method
    • Can produce large number of plants readily
  • Disadvantages
    • May not be reliable or true
    • Uniformity in seedlings can be poor
divisions
Plant ScienceDivisions
  • Rhizomes
  • Stolons
  • Tubers and tuberous roots
  • Bulbs and corms
slide121
Plant Science

Division

  • Advantages
    • Produces large plants more quickly
    • Time to flower is generally shorter
    • Plants are identical to the parent
  • Disadvantages
    • More labor to dig and divide plants
    • Diseases and insect problems may be carried from the parent plant
cuttings
Plant ScienceCuttings
  • Hardwood
    • Stem cuttings
  • Softwood
    • Stem cuttings
    • Root cuttings
    • Leaf cuttings
slide123
Plant Science

Cuttings

  • Advantages
    • Large numbers of genetically identical plants
    • Propagules are generally uniform
  • Disadvantages
    • Require controlled environments for propagation
    • Must have stock or mother plants
    • Diseases and viruses may be carried from infected plants
slide125
Plant Science

Tissue Culture

  • Advantages
    • Propagules are generally very uniform
    • Thousands of plants from a small amount of tissue
    • Less likely to have disease problems
  • Disadvantages
    • Requires controlled, sterile facilities and environments
    • Propagation time is long and propagules are often expensive
grafting1
Plant ScienceGrafting
  • Advantages
    • You can combine attractive features of two plants
    • Works well for plants that a difficult to propagate in other ways
  • Disadvantages
    • Scion and root stock must be compatible
    • Requires skill
layering
Plant ScienceLayering
  • Tip layering
  • Air layering
layering1
Plant ScienceLayering
  • Advantages
    • Easy to do
    • Doesn’t require expensive equipment or expertise
  • Disadvantage
    • Air layering root formation is slow and may take two to three months or longer
slide131
Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Chrysanthemum

slide132
Plant Science

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Crabapple

slide133
Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Redosier Dogwood

slide134
Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Dieffenbachia

slide135
Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Geraniums

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