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Plant Science. A Unit of the Michigan State University Extension Master Gardener Curriculum. Plant Science. Topics. Plant science Plant growth and development Plant propagation. Plant Science. Plant Science. Botany Horticulture Agronomy Forestry. Plants - Physiology - Genetics

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slide1

Plant Science

A Unit of the

Michigan State University Extension

Master Gardener Curriculum

slide2

Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science
  • Plant growth and development
  • Plant propagation
plant science

Plant Science

Plant Science
  • Botany
  • Horticulture
  • Agronomy
  • Forestry
botany compared to horticulture
Plants

- Physiology

- Genetics

- Taxonomy

Cultivated plants

Ornamentals

Flowers

Vegetables

Fruit

Plant Science

Botany Compared to Horticulture
slide6

Plant Science

Flowers - Floriculture

slide7

Plant Science

Vegetables - Olericulture

slide8

Plant Science

Fruit - Pomology

plant science1

Plant Science

Plant Science
  • Anatomy - Structure
  • Physiology - Function
  • Morphology - Shape
what is a plant

Plant Science

What Is a Plant?
  • Living organism
  • Contains chlorophyll
  • Can manufacture its own food
  • Multicellular with rigid cell walls
plant kingdom
Non-Vascular Plants

Vascular Plants

Plant Science

Plant Kingdom
vascular plants

Plant Science

Vascular Plants

Flowering

Angiosperms

Non-flowering

Gymnosperms

“Others”

slide13

Plant Science

Angiosperms

  • Monocots
  • Dicots
slide14

Plant Science

Cotyledons

  • Monocots
    • One
  • Dicots
    • Two
leaf venation
Monocots

Usually parallel

Dicots

Usually net-like

Plant Science

Leaf Venation
slide16

Plant Science

Flower Parts

  • Monocots
    • Usually in threes
  • Dicots
    • Usually four or five
slide17

Plant Science

Vascular System

  • Monocots
    • Complex arrangement
  • Dicots
    • Arranged in a ring
slide18

Plant Science

Physiological Differences

  • Monocots are not killed by broadleaf herbicides
  • Dicots will be killed by broadleaf herbicides
plant classification

Plant Science

Plant Classification
  • Family - Rosaceae
  • Genus - Rosa
  • Specific epithet - hybrida
  • Cultivar – ‘Nearly Wild’
common names

Plant Science

Common Names
  • Goutweed
  • Bishop’s Weed
  • Bishop’s Goutweed
  • Snow on the Mountain
binomial nomenclature

Plant Science

Binomial Nomenclature
  • Developed by Carl von Linné in 1753
  • Two word name for each plant or animal
  • Genusname followed by a descriptive name or specific epithet
  • Together the two words identify a species
slide23

Plant Science

Binomial Nomenclature

Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’

cells tissues organs

Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs

What Makes Up a Plant?

plant cell

Plant Science

Plant Cell

Cell wall

Plasma membrane

Vacuole

Chloroplast

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

slide26

Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs

plant tissues

Plant Science

Plant Tissues
  • Meristematic
  • Dermal
  • Vascular
slide28

Plant Science

Meristematic Tissues

  • Apical meristem
    • Located at the tip of a shoot or root
  • Lateral meristem
    • Formed in stems and roots of many plants
    • Allows plant to grow in diameter
    • Vascular cambium is a lateral meristem
dermal tissue

Plant Science

Dermal Tissue
  • Epidermis
    • Cuticle
    • Stomata
  • Periderm
    • Protective covering
    • Lenticels
vascular tissue

Plant Science

Vascular Tissue
  • Xylem
    • Conduct water and minerals within the plant
  • Phloem
    • Move food (carbohydrates) produced by photosynthesis to other parts of the plant
slide32

Plant Science

Cells Tissues Organs

organ systems
Animals

Digestive

Circulatory

Endocrine

Plants

Root

Shoot

Plant Science

Organ Systems
plant organs

Plant Science

Plant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
root functions

Plant Science

Root Functions
  • Anchorage
  • Absorption
  • Storage
root type

Plant Science

Root Type

Fibrous

Tap

Tuberous

plant organs1

Plant Science

Plant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
stem function

Plant Science

Stem Function
  • Supports buds and leaves
  • Provides structure for vascular system
slide40

Plant Science

Stem Structure

  • Xylem
  • Phloem
  • Cambium

Cambium

Xylem

Phloem

stem structure

Plant Science

Stem Structure
  • Nodes
  • Internodes
  • Lenticels

Node

Internode

Node

stem type
Crowns

Tillers and stolens

Spurs

Tubers

Rhizomes

Corms

Bulbs

Plant Science

Stem Type
slide50

Plant Science

Stem Type

  • Crown
  • Tillers and stolens
  • Spur
  • Tuber
  • Rhizome
  • Corm
  • Bulb
  • Adaptations
stem modifications
Tendrils

Thorns

Plant Science

Stem Modifications
plant organs2

Plant Science

Plant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
bud structure

Plant Science

Bud Structure

Bud scales

Embryonic leaves

Shoot apex

types of buds

Plant Science

Types of Buds
  • Leaf bud
  • Flower bud
  • Terminal bud
  • Lateral bud
  • Adventitious bud
slide56

Plant Science

Flower Bud

slide57

Plant Science

Lateral and Terminal Buds

Terminal Bud

Lateral Bud

slide58

Plant Science

Adventitious Bud

plant organs3

Plant Science

Plant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
leaf functions

Plant Science

Leaf Functions
  • Absorption
  • Protection
  • Reproduction
slide62

Plant Science

Internal Leaf Structure

slide63

Plant Science

Leaf Type

Simple

Compound

compound leaves

Plant Science

Compound Leaves

Palmate

Odd Pinnate

Even Pinnate

(Horse Chestnut)

(Locust)

(Ash)

leaf venation1

Plant Science

Leaf Venation

Parallel

Pinnate

Palmate

slide67

Plant Science

Leaf Margins

slide68

Plant Science

Leaf Arrangement

Whorled

Opposite

Alternate

slide69

Plant Science

Maple

  • Type?
  • Shape?
  • Venation?
  • Margin?
  • Arrangement?
slide70

Plant Science

Oak

  • Type?
  • Shape?
  • Venation?
  • Margin?
  • Arrangement?
slide71

Plant Science

Ash

  • Type?
  • Shape?
  • Venation?
  • Margin?
  • Arrangement?
slide72

Plant Science

Leaf Modifications

Barrel Cactus

White Pine

plant organs4

Plant Science

Plant Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Buds
  • Leaves
  • Reproductive structures
slide76

Plant Science

Flower Type

Tulip

Queen Anne’s Lace

flower structure

Plant Science

Flower Structure

Corolla

Receptacle

Sepals

flower structure1

Plant Science

Flower Structure

Anther

Stigma

Style

Filament

slide79

Plant Science

Flower Structure

Stamen

Pistil

Ovary

Ovule

Ovary

flower function

Plant Science

Flower Function
  • Pollination
    • Wind, water, animals
slide81

Plant Science

Flower Function

  • Pollination
    • Wind, water, animals
  • Fertilization
    • Union of the male sperm nucleus from the pollen grain and the female egg from the ovary
pollination adaptations

Plant Science

Pollination Adaptations
  • Self-pollinating
  • Cross-pollinating
slide83

Plant Science

Monoecious Plants

Male

Female

slide84

Plant Science

Dioecious Plants

Female

Male

slide86

Plant Science

Fruit or Vegetable?

fruit structure

Plant Science

Fruit Structure

Ovary wall

(Fleshy part)

Fertilized ovules

(seeds)

fruit function

Plant Science

Fruit Function
  • Protects seeds as they develop
  • Keeps seeds moist
  • Acts as a dispersal mechanism
fruit types

Plant Science

Fruit Types
  • Simple
    • Apple
  • Aggregate
    • Raspberry
  • Multiple
    • Corn
slide91

Plant Science

Seed Type

slide94

Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science
  • Plant growth and development
  • Plant propagation
plant functions

Plant Science

Plant Functions
  • Photosynthesis
  • Respiration
  • Transpiration
photosynthesis

Plant Science

Photosynthesis
  • Occurs in cells that contain chloroplasts
  • Uses water and carbon dioxide
  • Stores energy in the form of sugar
  • Occurs in light
respiration

Plant Science

Respiration
  • Uses food and oxygen to release energy
  • Produces water and carbon dioxide
  • Occurs in dark as well as light
  • Occurs in all cells
transpiration

Plant Science

Transpiration
  • Water loss through the stomata
  • Moves molecules through the plant
  • Cools leaf surfaces and moderates plant temperature
  • Maintains turgor (firmness)
plants their environment
Light

Temperature

Water

Humidity

Nutrition

Plant Science

Plants & Their Environment
light

Plant Science

Light
  • Quantity (intensity)
  • Quality (wave length)
  • Duration (photoperiod)
slide101

Plant Science

Light Quantity Varies with

  • Time of day
  • Latitude
  • Time of year
  • Cloud density
  • Pollution
  • Moisture and haze
  • Elevation
  • Angle of the sun
slide102

Plant Science

Plant Morphology Changes with Light Intensity

  • Higher Light
  • More leaves
  • Shorter internodes
  • Leaves more vertical
  • Lower Light
  • Fewer leaves
  • Longer internodes
  • Leaves more horizontal
slide103

Plant Science

Plant Anatomy Changes with Light Intensity

  • Higher Light
  • Thicker leaves
  • More cell layers
  • More chloroplasts
  • Lower Light
  • Thinner leaves
  • Fewer cell layers
  • Fewer chloroplasts
slide104

Plant Science

Tight spacing, low light

Wide spacing, high light

slide106

Plant Science

Blue Light

  • Important for chlorophyll synthesis
  • Reduces stem elongation
  • Promotes greening of germinating seedlings
slide107

Plant Science

Red Light

  • Red light inhibits stem elongation and promotes branching
  • When combined with blue light encourages flowering and fruit set
slide108

Plant Science

Influence of Light Quality on Coreopsis lanceolata

Fluorescent

Incandescent

slide109

Plant Science

Photoperiodic Response

  • Short-day plants
    • Poinsettia, chrysanthemums
  • Long-day plants
    • Marigold, Rudbeckia, many vegetables
  • Day-neutral plants
    • Tomato, impatiens, African violet
temperature

Plant Science

Temperature
  • Affects productivity and plant growth
  • Cold temperature requirements
  • Can be used to manipulate flowering and plant height
slide111

Plant Science

Temperature

+DIF

+DIF

Day cooler than night

-DIF

shorter plants

Day warmer than night

+DIF

taller plants

–DIF

–DIF

DT = day temperature

NT = night temperature

slide112

Plant Science

Cooling Duration Influences Flowering

plant genetics

Plant Science

Plant Genetics

Astilbe chinensis pumila

Astilbe chinensis ‘Superba’

plant hormones

Plant Science

Plant Hormones
  • Auxins
  • Gibberellins
  • Cytokinins
  • Ethylene
  • Abscisic acid
slide115

Plant Science

Topics

  • Plant science
  • Plant growth and development
  • Plant propagation
slide116

Plant Science

Propagation Techniques

  • Seeds or spores
  • Division
  • Cuttings
  • Tissue culture
  • Grafting
  • Layering

Vegetative

propagation

plant life cycles

Plant Science

Plant Life Cycles

Annual

Perennial

Biennial

slide119

Plant Science

Seed

  • Advantages
    • Often the easiest and least-expensive method
    • Can produce large number of plants readily
  • Disadvantages
    • May not be reliable or true
    • Uniformity in seedlings can be poor
divisions

Plant Science

Divisions
  • Rhizomes
  • Stolons
  • Tubers and tuberous roots
  • Bulbs and corms
slide121

Plant Science

Division

  • Advantages
    • Produces large plants more quickly
    • Time to flower is generally shorter
    • Plants are identical to the parent
  • Disadvantages
    • More labor to dig and divide plants
    • Diseases and insect problems may be carried from the parent plant
cuttings

Plant Science

Cuttings
  • Hardwood
    • Stem cuttings
  • Softwood
    • Stem cuttings
    • Root cuttings
    • Leaf cuttings
slide123

Plant Science

Cuttings

  • Advantages
    • Large numbers of genetically identical plants
    • Propagules are generally uniform
  • Disadvantages
    • Require controlled environments for propagation
    • Must have stock or mother plants
    • Diseases and viruses may be carried from infected plants
slide125

Plant Science

Tissue Culture

  • Advantages
    • Propagules are generally very uniform
    • Thousands of plants from a small amount of tissue
    • Less likely to have disease problems
  • Disadvantages
    • Requires controlled, sterile facilities and environments
    • Propagation time is long and propagules are often expensive
grafting1

Plant Science

Grafting
  • Advantages
    • You can combine attractive features of two plants
    • Works well for plants that a difficult to propagate in other ways
  • Disadvantages
    • Scion and root stock must be compatible
    • Requires skill
layering

Plant Science

Layering
  • Tip layering
  • Air layering
layering1

Plant Science

Layering
  • Advantages
    • Easy to do
    • Doesn’t require expensive equipment or expertise
  • Disadvantage
    • Air layering root formation is slow and may take two to three months or longer
slide131

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Chrysanthemum

slide132

Plant Science

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Crabapple

slide133

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Redosier Dogwood

slide134

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Dieffenbachia

slide135

Plant Science

How Would You Propagate?

Geraniums