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Permanent Wave. History of permanent waving. History . People have attempted permanent waving since Egyptians & Romans, but were not successful. It was not until the 20 th century, in 1905, that three professional permanent wave methods introduced a new art & science in cosmetology

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Permanent Wave


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permanent wave

Permanent Wave

History of permanent waving

history
History

People have attempted permanent waving since Egyptians & Romans, but were not successful.

It was not until the 20th century, in 1905, that three professional permanent wave methods introduced a new art & science in cosmetology

Cold waving has almost become a specialty service because of the technical knowledge & practice it demands

history1
History
  • 1905 – first perm machine designed by
  • Charles Nessler
  • 1906 introduced in London
  • Machine permanent required electricity
  • to heat large metal clamps that were placed
  • over client’s hair
  • Not efficient, too much equipment
  • Oblong heating devices hung suspended

by cords & wires from a chandelier-like

structure

history2
History
  • Women sitting underneath these contraptions had their hair covered with a chemical paste and wound around metal rods, starting from the scalp and working downward
  • These units were heated during the perm process
  • They were kept from touching the scalp by a complex system of counterbalancing weights, suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted on a stand
history3
History
  • The tubes of the machine were then fitted over the rod, and the curl was electronically “ baked in”
  • 1920’s the technique was modified
    • Hair was now wrapped from the ends up to the scalp in a method called “ croquignole waving
    • Created by Robert Bishinger, a beautician from Pittsburgh, PA
history4
History
  • 1930’s – came the cold wave and a new era in permanent waving
    • Chemicals instead of heat were used to process the hair
    • First cold waves took 6 – 8 hours for completion at room temperature
      • Term ‘overnight’ wave became popular
  • 1932 first machineless permanent wave
  • Originally designed by a hairdresser in Pennsylvania
    • This design removed the risk of electrical burn or shock, and didn’t require the use of a bulky piece of machinery
    • External heat was generated through a chemical process & preheated clamps
history5
History
    • Soft, small pads containing an exothermic (heat producing) mixture were wound around hair strands
    • Hot clamps kept the pad in place while the curl was processed
  • 1934-1st attempt w/out heat
    • Original test chemical used was palmolive shaving soap
      • Strand of hair was cut from scalp
      • Saturated w/ shaving soap
      • Wound around nail
      • Placed in aluminum foil to keep from drying out
      • 3 days later- unrolled & showed definite curl
      • Curl retained even after shampoo
history6
History
  • Next attempt
    • Waving lotion for heat waving,w/out heating the lotion
    • Chemicals in the waving lotion softened the hair
    • Lasted 6-8 hours instead of 3 days
  • 1938, Arnold F.Willat – birth of cold waving
    • Chemical lotion was sprayed directly onto set hair
    • 10 minutes time a client had a full head of curls
history7
History
  • Willat found that during the treatment hair was hydrolyzed – the protein of the hair was chemically made to combine with water instead of simply getting wet.
  • This process often caused many hair cells to break down & as a result the hair would break off when unrolled from the rod
  • Cold wave lotion, because of its low temperature, was not nearly as damaging as the heated alternative
history8
History
  • Women could undergo repeated cold wave perms with little or no damage to their hair
  • The secret was not in the application of heat, but in the chemicals themselves
  • 1940 – first commercial perm
  • 1941 a woman undergoing a perm died
    • Her death was attributed to absorption of ammonium sulfide
    • FDA immediately took the sulfide lotion off the market
history9
History
  • 1941 – a substitute was needed quickly
    • Thioglycolate appeared in the salons and worked just as well as its sulfide predecessor
    • 1948 FDA ruled that the new lotion was safe, and permanent waving enjoyed an even bigger surge of popularity
  • 1946 – salon owners became concerned
    • Store shelves of home permanents appeared
    • Campaigns were launched on the advantages of a professional perm
history10
History
  • Early 1950’s – different strength per solutions appeared
    • Additives became popular
      • Placenta
      • Mink oil
      • Wheat germ
  • 1952 – on rod method in neutralizing verses splash on method
history11
History
  • 1956 – finally more salon perms were administered
    • Slogans appeared everywhere
      • “Professional care is best for the hair”
    • TONI – the famous slogan “Which twin has the Toni?” ad landed the Toni Home Permanent Company in court when it was discovered that both twins had had their hair done in a salon, which charged $15 per treatment, as opposed to the $2 cost of a home perm
      • Toni was ordered to refrain from further false advertising
history12
History
  • 1960’s – perms and alkaline perms
    • Natural styles were emphasized & straight hair became the big look
  • By the 1960’s, scientific hair analysis had made us more aware of pH
    • Potential hydrogen
  • 1965 – “reverse perm”
    • Removal of undesired curl, later classified as chemical hair straighteners
history13
History
  • Early attempts to use chemicals to reform the hair quickly gave way to the alkaline cold waving method that is still in use today
    • This method utilizes a waving solution that is formulated with
      • Thioglycolic acid or its derivatives
        • Gentler curl
      • Ammonium hydroxide
        • Firmer curl
history14
History
  • 1970’s – acid wave was developed which help reverse the negative attitude with perming
  • Today
    • Although thioglycolic acid or a derivative is still the basic ingredient, the free ammonia or excess alkali is eliminated from the formula
    • This does not end the history of permanent waving because of continual exploration for the “perfect curl”
summary
Summary
  • Charles Nessler invented the perm machine capable of producing “permanent” curl in hair
  • 1st perms were called heat waves because heat and strong alkali produced the curl
  • 1930 cold wave introduced
  • Today – acid waves popular because they have a lower pH than the cold waves and produce a more natural looking curl