2007 Minimum Requirements for Food and Beverage Establishments This module is based on the North Dakota building, fire, plumbing and electrical codes Module designed by Tera Sandvik, LRD, Program Coordinator and Julie Garden-Robinson, PhD, LRD, Food and Nutrition Specialist
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Have you thought of opening a food and beverage establishment, but don’t know where to start? • By the end of this module, you will have a general knowledge of the minimum construction and equipment requirements to get you on your way.
Presurvey • Before we begin, let’s take a presurvey to see how much you already know. • Click here to begin the presurvey.
Flooring Requirements • Use smooth, nonabsorbent, durable and easily cleanable material: • Where food is prepared • Where utensils are washed • Where garbage is stored • Some approved materials: • Sealed concrete • Terrazzo • Ceramic tile • Quarry tile • Durable linoleum • Provide coved baseboards of similar material at wall and floor junctures Carpet is prohibited in the above areas
Flooring Cont. • Provide trapped floor drains on floors that you spray with water for cleaning or where pressure spray methods are used to clean equipment. • The Food Code prohibits floor drains connecting directly to the sewer system.
Examples of approved material for walls and ceilings: Concrete Sealed and finished pumice blocks Ceramic tiles Fiberglass-reinforced panels Stainless steel Approved material is required: Where food is prepared or stored Where utensils are washed In walk-in freezers and refrigerators Where garbage is stored In restrooms and dressing/locker rooms Now that you have the ground covered, let’s move up to the ceilings and walls Pegboard for wall material and acoustical tile for ceiling material is prohibited in the areas mentioned above Pegboard for wall material and acoustical tile for ceiling material is prohibited in the areas mentioned above
Lighting Requirements • Use foot-candles to measure light. • One foot-candle equals 1 lumen on 1 square foot of space. • A 40-watt fluorescent light equals 3,150 lumens. • Formula: Fixtures required = foot-candles required x area of space in square feet lumens per fixture x 0.65 x 0.75
Example • Square feet = 600 • Foot-candles required = 20 • Fixture contains two 40-watt fluorescent lights • Lumens = 2 x 40 x 78.75 = 6,300 • Fixtures = 20 foot-candles x 600 square feet 6300 lumens x 0.65 x 0.75 = 3.9 For this room, four fixtures with two 40-watt lights are required.
Try this one on your own • Square feet = 900 • Foot-candles required = 10 • Fixture contains two 40-watt fluorescent lights • Lumens = 2 x 40 x 78.75 = 6,300 • Fixtures = Click to see the answer. Fixtures = 10 foot-candles x 900 square feet 6,300 x .65 x .75 Fixtures = 2.9 For this room, three fixtures with two 40-watt lights are required.
Lighting Requirements • Provide protective shielding or shatterproof bulbs for all artificial lighting over, by or in: • Food storage areas • Food preparation areas • Service and display areas • Areas where you clean or store utensils and equipment
Ventilation System Even though your kitchen will be filled with great aromas from delicious foods you are preparing, we need to talk about ventilation systems to help keep the air circulating.
Ventilation Systems • The following devices should have hoods and a properly installed exhaust ventilation system to vent air to the outside: • Ranges • Deep-fat fryers • Grills • Broilers • The exhaust system must have adequate grease filters or other means of grease extraction.
Pest Control What is small and furry, has beady eyes and could make your business fail if caught scurrying around your establishment? If you guessed mice and other rodents, give yourself a pat on the back
Keep Pests Out • Protect openings leading outside • Outer doors should be tight-fitting and self-closing • Screens should be tight-fitting and free of tears • Use 16 mesh per square inch • Close drive-through windows when not in use.
One of these three kitchens is pest free. Do you know which one it is? Click to see. • The lower left kitchen has flies, mice and a cat. • The lower right kitchen has mice on the countertop and a cat lurking in the background. • The top kitchen is pest-free. • Keep pets and pests out of the kitchen at all times.
Water and Sewage Disposal • Connect to a municipal water/sewer system • If a municipal system is not in place, a private system must be approved by the state Department of Health. • Provide pressurized water to all fixtures and equipment using water. • Provide enough garbage containers. • Store garbage outside in large, metal trash bins or in cans elevated 12 inches above a smooth, nonabsorbent surface, such as concrete or asphalt.
Restroom Requirements • Installation must comply with state codes. • No more than half of the toilets in men’s restrooms may be urinals. • Additional toilets are required when seating more than 50. • They must accommodate the disabled. • Separate restrooms may be required for employees, depending on the number of employees. • They must be conveniently located. • They must be completely enclosed and equipped with tight-fitting, self-closing, solid doors.
Restroom Requirements Cont. • Toilets must be of the elongated bowl type with an open front seat. • Restrooms must: • be equipped with mechanical ventilation • provide easily cleanable waste containers for waste materials • have at least one covered waste container if it is a women’s restroom • provide hand soap, a supply of sanitary towels or a hand-drying device and toilet tissue at all times • have an adequate number of hand sinks with hot and cold running water, under pressure, tempered by a mixing valve or combination faucet and an open strainer • Sink pop-up plugs or steam-mixing valves are prohibited.
The following picture has three things wrong with it. Can you tell what they are? Click to see. Bathrooms should be stocked with disposable paper towels, soap and tissue paper. Toilets must be of the elongated bowl type with an open front seat.
Do I need a dressing room? • If employees routinely change clothes in the establishment, you must provide a dressing room. • You also must have lockers or other suitable facilities to store personal belongings. • Using the kitchen to store personal articles, such as coats, clothing and purses, is prohibited.
What to do about that dirty laundry? • If you need to wash linens, wiping cloths, uniforms or aprons, you must have and use a dryer. • You should have it in a separate room with a self-closing solid door. • Another option is to put the washer (not required) and dryer (required) in a storage area that contains only packaged food or packaged single-service articles. • Laundry facilities in food preparation and utensil-washing areas are prohibited.
Now that we’ve covered the floors, walls, ceilings, bathrooms, etc., let’s move on to the kitchen.
Provide protective storage for kitchenware, tableware and utensils. • Pegboard for hanging utensils is prohibited. • Storage shelves must be at least 6 inches above the floor. • Sealed wood is acceptable for nonfood contact storage. • Health and food safety officials recommend stainless steel or the equivalent. • Raw wood or contact paper-lined shelving is prohibited.
Which of the following is the minimum height acceptable for shelves above the floor? Click to see the answer.
Hot and cold storage facilities should be conveniently located to help maintain the proper food temperatures at all times. Consider your: • Storage • Service • Display • Transport • Use NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) commercially approved equipment. • Each freezer or refrigerator must have a numerically scaled thermometer that shows the accurate temperature of the freezer or refrigerator.
Provide separate storage areas for maintenance equipment, such as brooms, mops and vacuum cleaners. • Store this equipment so it does not contaminate food, utensils, equipment or linens. • Provide a storage area for toxic materials, such as insecticides, rodenticides, cleaners and polishes. • You cannot store these toxic materials with food products, equipment or utensils.
What brand of equipment you use in your kitchen can vary, but you should use NSF commercially approved equipment.
Food Contact Surfaces • Equipment, kitchenware, utensils and tableware should be easy to clean and durable with normal use. • Hard maple may be used for cutting blocks, cutting boards, salad bowls, baker’s tables and various single-service articles. • In all other situations, wood as a food contact surface is prohibited. • Laminated plastic construction for work tabletops is acceptable; however, stainless steel is recommended.
Now that you’ve got the proper equipment, where do you store it? • You cannot store equipment under exposed or unprotected sewer or water lines, open stairwells or other sources of contamination. • Install all equipment to facilitate cleaning. • Table-mounted equipment must be portable, sealed in place or elevated on legs at least 4 inches above the counter. • Floor-mounted equipment must be moveable, sealed to the floor or elevated on legs at least 6 inches above the floor.
Are you going to have a salad bar or another type of self-service food area? Read on to learn what you need to know.
Salad Bar • Cold holding areas should maintain proper refrigerator temperatures and drain to a floor drain through an air gap. • All customer self-service food areas must have an approved cough and sneeze guard. • All food, plates, utensils, etc., also must be protected by a cough and sneeze guard or other approved method.
Now that you’ve got your kitchen setup ready to serve, how do you keep all your dishes clean?
Dish sinks • Provide a three-compartment sink with drainboards on each end. • A moveable dish table may be substituted for one drainboard. • Dish sinks may not be used for food preparation or mop water disposal. • One utility sink (mop sink) or curbed unit with floor drain must be provided.
Sinks • Each compartment of the sink must have potable hot and cold running water under pressure. • The sink compartments must be large enough to accommodate the largest cooking utensil.
Dishwashing Machines • Dishwashing machines are optional. • Dishwashing machines must be an approved commercial type installed in compliance with your state’s plumbing code. • They should be hooded to adequately exhaust condensation. • If you install a hot water temperature dishwashing machine, you need a properly sized booster heater. • If you use chemical sanitizers, you need an appropriate test kit.
Now that we’ve got our hands dirty, let’s talk about hand-washing facilities.
Hand sinks • One hand sink is required. Hand washing is not allowed in sinks used for food preparation or the washing of equipment. • You may be required to have more than one employee hand sink, depending on the size and layout of the establishment. • Hand sinks must have hot and cold running water, under pressure, tempered with a mixing valve or combination faucet and an open strainer. • Sink pop-up waste plugs or steam- mixing valves are prohibited.
Hand washing • You should provide a supply of hand-cleansing soap or detergent. • You must have sanitary towels or a hand-drying device conveniently located near each hand sink at all times. • The use of common towels is prohibited.
Thermometers, coolers, etc. • Provide and use at least one metal-stemmed thermometer to monitor the temperatures of potentially hazardous food products during storage, preparation, cooking, holding and serving or when on display. • Install all bar equipment to facilitate cleaning. • Provide a mechanical glass washer or a three- compartment sink with integral drain boards. • Provide a separate hand-washing sink in each back-bar area. • Provide adequately sized coolers.
Beverage Safety • Do not have liquor- or pop-dispensing guns above potable ice or clean glass storage areas. • Store ice for consumption separately from ice used for cooling purposes. • Store ice for human consumption in a container or ice bin that is drained to the sewage system through an air gap. • Provide a soda syrup storage area. • Store the containers on a metal rack at least 6 inches off the floor. • Establishments that dispense frozen desserts (bulk ice cream, etc.) must provide a running-water dipper well near the ice cream freezer.
Post-Survey • Let’s see what you’ve learned. • Click here to begin the post-survey.
Learn more about food and beverage establishment requirements with the following on-line resources. • www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu • http://www.health.state.nd.us/FoodLodging/PDF/North%20Dakota%20Food%20Code%202003.pdf NDSU is an equal opportunity institution.