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Job Shop, Flow Shop, and Batch Processing. Facility Layout : Job Shop. Product 1. Product 2. Output. A. B. Input. C. D. Job Shop (Functional Layout).

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facility layout job shop
Facility Layout : Job Shop

Product 1

Product 2

Output

A

B

Input

C

D

job shop functional layout
Job Shop (Functional Layout)

Functional layout: similar resources in the same department. Ex. all press machines are located in stamping department. Ex. Bakeries, law firms, emergency rooms, repair shops.

  • low volume, high variety customized products
  • flexible resources
  • skilled human resources
  • jumbled work flows
  • high material handling
  • large volume of inventories
  • long flow time
  • highly structured information system
  • high cost per unit of product but low investment
facility layout flow shop
Facility Layout : Flow Shop

Product 1

Product 2

A

D

B

Input

Output

C

B

A

flow shop product layout
Flow Shop (Product Layout)

Product layout or line layout: Resources are arranged according to the sequence of the operations. Usually requires duplication ( and investment) of a resource pool; dedication of resources. Discrete flow shop; assembly line, Continuous flow shop; beverage.

  • high standardization, high speed
  • low material handling, short flow time
  • low flow unit processing cost
  • high investment cost; needs mass production.
  • special purpose equipment, and low skilled labor prevent flexibility

Most processes fall somewhere on the continuum between Job Shop and Flow Shop; batch processing.

the product process matrix
The Product-Process Matrix
  • Positions outside the diagonal signal misalignment. Three­star chefs who serve simple meals (burritos and tacos) with their highly flexible job shop process incur high opportunity costs. Substantial savings would result from changing resources (including chefs) and streamlining the process into a flow shop.
  • Asking Chipotle's to change its menu daily would require high changeover costs. Asking it to deliver a three-star dining experience is virtually impossible.
the product process matrix7
The Product-Process Matrix
  • Whereas the strategic operational audit is a high­level tool for improving fit, the product-process matrix focuses on the match between process technology and delivered product attributes.
  • The product-process matrix starts by evaluating the promised value proposition and the process used to deliver value. It verifies alignment along one dimension, often by comparing the degree of variety in the value proposition with the degree of process flexibility. This combination is then represented by a covered area in the matrix where the distance to the diagonal represents the degree of misalignment.
matching process choice with strategy product process matrix
Matching Process Choice with Strategy: Product-Process Matrix

Process

Flexibility

High

JOB SHOP

Jumbled Flow.

Process segments

loosely linked.

(Commercial Printer,

Architecture firm)

BATCH

Disconnected Line

Flow/Jumbled Flow

but a dominant flow

(Heavy Equipment,

Auto Repair)

Opportunity

exists.

Costs

FLOW SHOP

Connected Line

Flow (assembly line)

(Auto Assembly,

Car lubrication shop)

Continuous, automated,

CONTINUOUS

rigid line flow.

Out-of-pocket

Process segments tightly

FLOW

Costs

linked.

Low

(Oil Refinery)

Product

Variety

High

Low

Low Standardization

High Standardization

Commodity Products

Few Major Products

One of a kind

Low Volume

Many Products

High volume

matching process choice with strategy product process matrix9
Matching Process Choice with Strategy: Product-Process Matrix

Process

Flexibility

High

JOB SHOP

Jumbled Flow.

Process segments

loosely linked.

(Commercial Printer,

Architecture firm)

BATCH

Disconnected Line

Flow/Jumbled Flow

but a dominant flow

(Heavy Equipment,

Auto Repair)

Opportunity

exists.

Costs

FLOW SHOP

Connected Line

Flow (assembly line)

(Auto Assembly,

Car lubrication shop)

Continuous, automated,

CONTINUOUS

rigid line flow.

Out-of-pocket

Process segments tightly

FLOW

Costs

linked.

Low

(Oil Refinery)

Product

Variety

High

Low

Low Standardization

High Standardization

Commodity Products

Few Major Products

One of a kind

Low Volume

Many Products

High volume

A similar graph can be prepared to show the relationship between process flexibility and cost, or process flexibility and response time, but not for quality.