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Instructional Design in a Technological World: Fitting Learning Activities Into the Larger Picture. ICALT Presentation August 6, 2001 Robin Soine Wisconsin Technical College System Foundation, Inc. UW Madison, PhD Student in Curriculum and Instruction.

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instructional design in a technological world fitting learning activities into the larger picture
Instructional Design in a Technological World: Fitting Learning Activities Into the Larger Picture

ICALT Presentation August 6, 2001

Robin Soine

Wisconsin Technical College System Foundation, Inc.

UW Madison, PhD Student in Curriculum and Instruction

statewide performance based learning model
Statewide Performance-basedLearning Model
  • An approach to teaching and learning which requires advance description of knowledge, skills, and attitudes learners must achieve on exit from a course or program

Informed by theory and best practice

1990-1992 development

1992 released

In use statewide by Wisconsin and Michigan, USA

slide3

Model

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide4

Model

WHO

WHAT

Who are the learners?

What do they need to be able to achieve?

How will I know when they’ve achieved it?

How will they get there?

WHEN

HOW

slide5

Model

Who

WHO

  • Who are my learners?
  • Why are they here?
  • What experiences do they bring?
  • What learning deficits do they have?
  • What are their expectations?
slide6

Model

What
  • What knowledge, skills, and attitudes must they achieve?
  • How well must they perform those outcomes?

WHAT

Core Abilities

Competencies

Learning Objectives

Performance Standards

slide7

Model

When
  • How will my learners know when they have “arrived?”
  • How will their competence be measured?
  • What strategy will I use for assessment?

WHEN

Performance Assessment Task

slide8

Model

How
  • How can I help learners build competence?
  • What activities will I plan?
  • How can I address different learning styles, especially in online courses?
  • How can I use more learner-centered activities?
  • How do I design activities around learning cycle?

HOW

Learning Activities

slide9

Model

4Plan strategies for HOW they’ll learn

3Establish how you’ll measure WHEN they have achieved

1Identify learners

2Determine WHAT they must achieve

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide10

How

When

What

Learner

Who

slide11

How

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide12

How

Learning Activities:

strategies for mastering specific learning outcomes

(often thought of as assignments)

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide13

Methods vs. Media

cause learning

deliver instruction

Practice

Simulation

Discussion

Presentation

Demonstration

slide14
computer

case study

Internet

simulation

discussion

demonstration

teacher

text

role play

video

transparencies

practice

Methods vs. Media

Methods cause learning, media deliver instruction.

  • Which cause learning?
slide15

What are we doing to the learner’s mind?

Sensing Memory

selector

large capacity

short duration

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide16

Working Memory

  • processor
  • powerful
  • fragile
  • short duration
  • small capacity

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide17

Long-Term Memory

  • information storage

large capacity

requires retrieval

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide18

When designing activities online

  • insert frequent practice
  • vary the learning format
  • design with a bias for learner-centered methods
  • provide learning plans
  • support all stages of the learning process

Clark, Ruth.

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide19

Fried Brain Syndrome

Too much information

Too fast

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide20

Cognitive Overload

Cognitive Overload

Cognitive Overload

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide21

To avoid cognitiveoverload:

  • break learning into manageable chunks
  • clear the working memory with meaningful practice

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide22

Vary the Learning Format

People learn in different ways

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide23

Vary the Learning Format

Method (Discussion? Simulation?)

Media (Computer? Paper?)

Environment (Outside work group?)

Interpersonal context (F2F? Electronic?)

Feedback (Written? Verbal?)

Givens

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide24

The Learning Cycle

Application

Motivation

Practice

Comprehension

stage one motivation
Stage One: Motivation

Learners:

  • Focus attention
  • Answers: “Why do I need or want to learn this material?’

Example: (Competency = Critique Speeches )

_____1. Describe characteristics that make a speech or presentation effective for you. Post your description to the Discussion for this learning plan.

_____2. THINK about the many ways you have been critiqued by teachers, family, and friends. How was their feedback helpful or not helpful? Why was it so? Were strengths and weaknesses both pointed out? Was it better to hear both or just one of them?

slide26

Application

Motivation

Practice

Comprehension

stage two comprehension
Stage Two: Comprehension

Learners:

  • access information they need to perform target competency
  • process content in working memory
  • minimize use of teacher-centered inform activities such as “listen to a lecture” or “read the text”

_____3. POST two examples in the Discussion for Learning Plan 6 of how feedback you received was helpful and not helpful. After reading what others have written, do you see a pattern to what constitutes good feedback?

_____4. READ the six criteria to giving effective feedback on pages 68-69 in your text. Are any of these already second-nature to you? Are any of these new to you?

slide28

Application

Motivation

Practice

Comprehension

stage three practice encode to long term memory
Stage Three: Practice(Encode to long-term memory)

Learners:

  • engage in guided practice
  • have the opportunity to DO what they are learning
  • receive continuing improvement assessment and feedback

_____5. REVIEW the Speech Evaluation Form while you read a speech at the website http//:www.schoolforchampions.com/speeches.htm, www.artofspeaking.com, or another site. If possible, find an online video of the speech.

slide30

Application

Motivation

Practice

Comprehension

stage four application
Stage Four: Application

Learners:

  • apply what they have learned to real world problems
  • show that they have learned
  • set the stage for next learning task

_____6. ATTEND a community/campus speaker (i.e., sermon, lawyer's arguments, local speaker, etc.). FILL OUT the Speech Evaluation Form. If it is not appropriate to fill it out during the speech, please do so as soon as possible.

_____7. WATCH the videotape of your Special Occasion speech. COMPLETE the Speech Evaluation Form while you view yourself.

slide32

Support All Stages of the Learning Process

So, what’s the teacher’s role?

slide33

Application

Motivation

Compre-

hension

Practice

Inspire

Mentor

Coach

(guide on the side)

Inform

(sage on the stage)

learner advantages of pbl online
Learner Advantages of PBL Online
  • What is learned is skill based; not outlines of information
  • Expectations are set in advance; learners plan how to invest time and energy

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

learner advantages of pbl online35
Learner Advantages of PBL Online
  • Grades are based on how well learners perform skill; not on how well others perform
  • Learners are actively involved
  • Learners have documentation showing skill

Copyright 2001. WIDS.

slide36

Learning Plan 12

Instructional Materials

Introduction:

Instructional materials contain the actual instructional content. You us them to communicate information to learners. . .

Why?

Competency

Develop instructional materials that support specific learning activities

  • Performance Standards
  • Criteria:
  • instructional materials are consistent with the core abilities competencies and learning objectives
  • instructional materials support the learning activities
  • instructional materials are accurate, complete . . .

What?

Learning Objectives:

a. Explain the effect of learning materials on the instructional experience.

b. Identify the benefits of instructional materials. . .

Learning Activities:

__1. PREVIEW the learning objectives and performance standards.

__ 2. BRAINSTORM a list of characteristics that learners do and do not like about instructional materials (use the worksheet). . .

__3. VIEW Video Lesson #12 “Instructional Materials.”. . .

How?

When?

Performance Assessment:

__1. SUBMIT the instructional materials you developed in Assignment 12 to your facilitator for review.

slide37

Theory/Practice

Theorists

Learning Taxonomy

Benjamin Bloom, D. Krathwohl, B. Masia, Robert Gagne

Cognitive Processing

Ruth Colvin Clark, Renate and Geoffrey Caine, Sue Berryman, Patricia Cross, Robert Sylvester

Multiple Intelligence

Howard Gardner

Accelerated Learning

Paul Scheele, David Meier

Performance-Based Learning

Robert Mager, Michael Schmoker, Ruth Colvin Clark, Ralph Tyler

Dimensions of Learning

Robert Marzano

Learning Styles

David Kolb, Bernice McCarthy

Learning Cycle

R. Gagne, Bernice McCarthy

Performance Assessment

Grant Wiggins, Robert Mager, Michael, Robert Marzano, Donald Kirkpatrick

Component Display Theory (classification of content and knowledge)

David Merrill

Workplace Skills

A. Carnevale,

Instructional Materials

F. Kiewra and G.M. Frank,

Performance Expectations

Robert Mager, Norman Gronlund, Robert Marzano, Robert Gagne

Classroom Assessment

Thomas Angelo, Patricia Cross

Instructional/Learning Design

Ruth Colvin Clark, William Rothwell and H.C. Kazanas, Walter Dick and Lou Carey, Curtis Finch and John Crunkilton, Jerrold Kemp, David Pucel

Adult Learning

Jerald Apps, Alan Knox, Malcolm Knowles, Alan Tough

Learning Transfer

Ruth Colvin Clark

Copyright 2001. WIDS.