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Differentiation for Vocabulary and Comprehension HIGH-QUALITY SCHOOL-LEVEL CHOICES SHARON WALPOLE UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Our First Focus: Tier I Tasks Our Second Focus Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition Our Third Focus Word Recognition and Fluency

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high quality school level choices sharon walpole university of delaware

Differentiation for

Vocabulary and Comprehension

HIGH-QUALITY SCHOOL-LEVEL CHOICES

SHARON WALPOLE

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

take stock

What strategies are you using to differentiate for

    • Phonemic awareness and word recognition?
    • Word recognition and fluency?
    • Fluency and comprehension?
  • What progress/problems were revealed in your January benchmarking data?
  • What additional data do you need to gather?
TaKE stock
what progress did you make
What progress did you make?
  • Please spend 30 minutes with your home team; discuss your progress so far on any of our tasks
  • Then we will have another 30-minute gallery walk; it will help you to network with others who are tackling the same issues that you are facing.
goals for today
Goals for Today
  • Review this conceptualization of tiered, differentiated instruction
  • Present a model for instructional planning for the Vocabulary and Comprehension group
  • Problem-solve for a classroom of students
ground rules
Ground Rules
  • Separate professional development from state or district or school policy
    • I can help to inform your policies, but I can’t set or endorse them
  • Use time wisely
    • Participate in tasks during and after the training
    • Stay focused on today’s tasks rather than future ones
  • Be considerate
    • Please step outside if you must conduct business other than the tasks I am setting
    • Don’t come up to the front to ask questions during group work
back in school
Back in School

Use the data available to you to make decisions about groupings and about instruction focus

Organize your classroom so that children engage in meaningful reading and writing practice and you can teach small groups without being interrupted

Plan for three weeks for each group and evaluate your children’s response to your instruction

slide12

A Stairway to Proficiency

Vocabulary & Comprehension

Fluency and Comprehension

Word Recognition and Fluency

PA and Word Recognition

stage models of reading
Stage models of reading

When children are acquiring literacy – developing the skills necessary for reading comprehension – they tend to move through stages in which their focus is very different.

All along, during each stage, they are developing oral language skills.

slide15

A Stairway to Proficiency

Vocabulary & Comprehension

Fluency and Comprehension

Word Recognition and Fluency

PA and Word Recognition

slide16

Which children belong in this group?

Let’s start by considering their needs as instructional targets.

slide17

Two kinds of children receive differentiated instruction of this kind.

One kind is performing at benchmark in all decoding areas but is not yet fluent. These children listen to read-aloud texts.

The other kind is fluent and can therefore be expected to read the text that will be the basis of vocabulary and comprehension instruction.

What are our targets for the fourth step?

the cognitive model
The Cognitive Model

Phonological

Awareness

Decoding and

Sight Word

Knowledge

Fluency

in

Context

Print

Concepts

Automatic

Word

Recognition

Vocabulary

Knowledge

Background

Knowledge

Language

Comprehension

Reading

Comprehension

Knowledge of

Text and Sentence

Structures

Strategic

Knowledge

Specific Purposes

for Reading

Knowledge of Strategies

for Reading

General Purposes

for Reading

think about your assessments
Think about your assessments.

Let’s translate the model into a series of guiding questions.

Think about the data you will need to answer these questions.

slide21

Yes

Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency?

Vocabulary and Comprehension

(Children Read)

No

Yes

Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered?

Fluency and Comprehension

No

Yes

Is the child at benchmark in decoding?

Vocabulary and Comprehension

(Teacher Reads Aloud)

slide22

The lessons for K-1 and 2-3 are nearly identical. The difference is that for K-1 the book is read aloud by the teacher, but for grades 2-3, the children read it on their own.

slide23

Remember that these children are NOT remedial. The three-tier “wedding cake” model of intervention, in which only struggling children receive differentiated instruction does NOT apply. The children at the top stairstep deserve appropriate instruction too!

books for vocabulary and comprehension
Books for vocabulary and comprehension
  • A three-week cycle should contain between 3 and 15 books.
  • Books should represent a balance of fiction and nonfiction, from cycle to cycle, although the books in a given cycle may be either fiction or nonfiction.
  • Each cycle should have a unifying topic (for fiction) or theme (for fiction)
books for vocabulary and comprehension28
Books for vocabulary and comprehension
  • Books should be challenging but not beyond the grasp of students.
      • For K-1 students, books should be near the listening level.
      • For students in grades 2 and 3, books should be approximately at grade level.
  • Books must have plenty of real content. They cannot be decodable or predictable books.
books for vocabulary and comprehension29
Books for vocabulary and comprehension
  • Books can be tied to state standards in ELA, science, and social studies.
  • Books should be of similar difficulty within a three-week cycle, but they should gradually increase in difficulty from cycle to cycle.
  • Books should represent a variety of genres and text structures.
slide30

Harder Texts

Easier Texts

Rotation

among

major text

types

slide31

Together, please examine the books on your table. Select one book that you think would be appropriate for a K-1 read aloud and one for a 2-3 reading group.

How did you choose?

slide32

Unlike the first two steps, instruction on the top step does not move through a progressive series of target skills.

guidelines for text selection
Guidelines for text selection
  • Does the text connect to other texts or other parts of the curriculum?
  • Is the text likely to be comprehensible given teacher support?
  • Does the text avoid decodable and patterned language?
  • Does the text have adequate content to foster comprehension development?
  • Does the text incorporate a limited number of important, unfamiliar words?
  • Does the content relate to state standards for the English language arts, social studies, or science?
  • How many days would it take to finish?
instructional methods for vocabulary
Instructional Methods for vocabulary
  • Nonfiction
    • Concept of Definition
    • Semantic Feature Analysis
    • Semantic Maps
    • Diagrams
    • Concept Sorts
  • Fiction
    • Tier 2 instruction of explicit words

Let’s review

the planets a hypothetical trade book
The planets, A Hypothetical trade book

This book combines basic facts about the planets with pictures and diagrams. It is written at a third-grade level. The book is organized by first defining what a planet is and then discussing each one in turn, from nearest to farthest from the sun. Technical vocabulary include:

Mercury gravity dwarf planet

Venus revolve sun

Earth rotate

Mars orbit

Jupiter solar system

Saturn atmosphere

Uranus satellite

Neptune asteroid

Pluto Titan

slide38

The fact that all of these words appear in the book does not mean that they must all be taught to mastery. However, the words represent key concepts and the teacher must find ways to discuss them and to help students understand how they are related.

concept of definition
Concept of definition
  • The word to be taught is the center of a web. An upward line connects the word to a larger concept, downward lines to smaller concepts. Lateral lines connect to characteristics, etc. This diagram is constructed with explanation from the teacher. This approach works best with nouns, either general or technical.
slide42

Heavenly Body

Planet

Mercury Venus Earth Mars

slide43

Heavenly Body

Could have

moons

Could have

atmosphere

Revolves

around sun

Has gravity

Planet

Mercury Venus Earth Mars

slide44

Heavenly Body

asteroid

Could have

moons

Could have

atmosphere

Revolves

around sun

Has gravity

Planet

Mercury Venus Earth Mars

semantic feature analysis
Semantic feature analysis
  • A chart places the name of a category in the upper left-hand box, with category members below. Features the members may or may not possess are written in the top row and the remainder of the chart is filled in with plusses and minuses. The teacher leads the students in comparing and contrasting category members or features.
possible writing connections
Possible Writing Connections
  • Semantic feature analyses lend themselves to compare and contrast essays; consider a follow-up for this group to write to demonstrate comprehension
  • Semantic feature analyses lend themselves to construction of definitions; remember that it may take students 14 meaningful encounters to really learn a new concept
semantic maps
Semantic maps
  • Like concept of definition, the word to be taught is the center of a web. The word represents the major topic of the book. Lines connect the word to subtopics and information about each, written in brief. Semantic maps are useful for text structure as well but are also key to helping students organize their knowledge of an important concept.
slide49

What is Mercury Venus

a planet?

Planet

Neptune Earth

Uranus Mars

Saturn Jupiter

diagrams
Diagrams
  • Diagrams are graphic organizers that display how key concepts are related. Principal types include labeled pictures, hierarchical (tree) diagrams, Venns, time lines, and scales. Research shows that they are most effective when they are fully explained by the teacher and when students are given a chance to contribute.
slide51

Our book contains several diagrams, like this one. The teacher’s job is not to construct them but to explain them.

slide52

Our book also contains pictures with captions but not labels. These can also assist with vocabulary introduction.

Saturn as it might look from Titan

concept sorts
Concept sorts
  • Key words are presented to students, who work individually, with a partner, or in teams to categorize them. In a closed sort, the teacher supplies the category labels. In an open sort, the students must infer categories, sometimes creatively. This approach allows students to examine conceptual links among terms. It is most effective after the children have been exposed to the text and have become familiar with the meanings of the individual words.
slide54

Directions for a CLOSED Sort

This circle is for planets only. Work with a partner to place these word cards in the circle if they name a planet. Leave them outside the circle if they do not name a planet.

Solar system

Titan

Mars

The sun

Pluto

Venus

Neptune

Mercury

asteroid

Earth’s moon

slide55

Directions for an OPEN Sort

Work with a partner to place these word cards into small groups. The words in each group must be alike in some way. I will ask you to explain your groups.

Solar system

Titan

Mars

The sun

Pluto

Venus

Neptune

Mercury

asteroid

Earth’s moon

slide56

Go back through the books you’ve chosen.

What words would you teach?

What instructional strategy would you use?

tier 2 words
Tier 2 Words
  • This approach is useful with general vocabulary. Each word is written, pronounced, and defined in ordinary terms, including familiar synonyms. The teacher gives examples of correct usage in sentence contexts, one of which is a look-back to the text, and then asks students to contribute new sentence examples. The selected words are taught separately through this process because their meanings are unrelated. Not appropriate for nonfiction.
instructional targets for comprehension
Instructional targets for comprehension
  • Predicting
  • Monitoring, Questioning, Repredicting
  • Visualizing
  • Inferring
  • Using Fix-up Strategies
  • Inferring Main Ideas
  • Retelling a Story
  • Synthesizing

How can I manage these?

slide59

You don’t have to do all of them every time. Think about which strategies are most appropriate for the book, what each strategy requires a reader to do, and how you might talk about them. Here are some suggestions.

slide68

Go back through the books you’ve chosen.

What comprehension strategy would you teach?

Where would you model it?

introduce the book s text structure
Introduce the book’s text structure
  • Doing so gives students a roadmap.
  • Acquainting students with types of text structures also helps them plan their writing.
  • Eventually, the time required to introduce a book’s text structure diminishes because there are only a few basic types.
  • More complex trade books often combine these basic texts, however, making it even more important to understand each one.
basic text structures
Basic text structures
  • Sequential
  • Topic-Subtopic
  • Simple Listing
  • Comparison-Contrast
  • Problem-Solution

Let’s look at each.

slide76

How is our book about the planets structured?

  • What Is a Planet?
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune
examples of complex text structures
Examples of complex text structures
  • The author of a trade book that describes sources of energy may use simple listing to present the sources, but follow these with a section that compares and contrasts them.
  • A book on the problem of the disappearing rain forest may use simple listing to present possible solutions, at the same time comparing them. In this case, simple listing is combined with problem-solution and comparison-contrast.
text structure of recycle
Text structure of Recycle!
  • Gail Gibbons begins by describing the problem posed by ever-increasing amounts of trash. She does this by tracking the movement of trash from the curbside to the landfill, employing a sequential pattern to present the problem.
  • She then turns to recycling as a major solution to this problem. However, the solution is broken down into the types of materials to be recycled.
  • She uses simple listing to present them: paper, glass, cans, plastic, and polystyrene. A four-page section is devoted to each type.
text structure of recycle79
Text structure of Recycle!

For this book, the overall text structure is problem-solution, but the problem component relies on a sequential structure and the solution component on simple listing.

So what’s the structure?

text structure of recycle80
Text structure of Recycle!
  • Problem (Pollution)
    • Sequence – Trash moves from curb to landfill
  • Solution (Recycling)
    • Simple listing of how five different materials are recycled
slide83

For short books, the before, during, and after phases might be completed during a single lesson.

Before

During

After

One book, one day

slide84

For longer books, the text will need to be broken up into segments. Each segment will need to be taught using the before-during-after approach, although what happens during each phase will vary.

Before

During

After

Part of a longer book each day

slide85

For example, the “before” phase for the initial text segment will include introducing the book, but for the second segment this introduction could be replaced with a brief recap of the previous segment (“Let’s see if we can remember what’s happened to far.”). For longer books, it will not suffice to plan a before, during, and after phase for the book as a whole. Each day’s segment will need to be approached through a separate lesson plan.

taking stock at the end of 3 weeks
Taking stock at the end of 3 weeks
  • Your main goal is to decide whether to move each child to a lower stairstep.
  • For children in K-1, consider whether decoding progress is adequate. If not, perhaps small-group work with a focus on word recognition would better serve them.
  • For children in grades 2 and 3, consider whether fluency remains adequate. If not, perhaps small-group work with a focus on fluency would better serve them.
slide87

What about vocabulary and comprehension?

If you think they should remain on the top step but haven’t responded well, reconsider your book selection.

slide90

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide91

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide93

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide94

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide95

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide96

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide97

Lesson 9

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through page beginning, “The male orca …”

slide98

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide99

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide100

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide101

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide102

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide103

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide104

Lesson 10

Killer Whales, by Seymour Simon, through end of book

slide105

Lesson 14

Review and Synthesis

Today we are going to review what we have learned about sea mammals. Together we have read these four books. [Display and say titles and authors.] Let’s make a chart that tells some of the information we know about them. I have already listed some of the mammals here on the left. Across the top I have written some words that may or may not be true for each one. You can help me decide. I will put a plus sign if the word is true and a minus sign if it is not true. The first mammal is the blue whale. Because the blue whale is a type of whale I will put a plus sign here. Now, does the blue whale eat other whales? Show me one finger if you think so and two fingers if you don’t think so. [Complete the feature analysis chart in this way.]

slide106

Lesson 14

Review and Synthesis

[Encourage the children to look for patterns and make comparisons. For example, all four have babies that drink milk because all are mammals. Also, the whales all live in saltwater.

Reconstruct the tree diagram. This time solicit help for where to put each new word. Include whale names not previously included.]

slide107

Grades 2 and 3

These children are fluent readers. In small groups, they will read grade-level texts, which the teacher will use to teach vocabulary and build comprehension proficiency.

slide110

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide111

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide112

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide113

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide114

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide115

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide116

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide117

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide118

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide119

Lesson 11

Brave Irene, Part 1 (through the page beginning, “And there he was.”)

slide120

Lesson 14

Book Talk and Tier 2 Vocabulary Review

slide121

Lesson 14

Book Talk and Tier 2 Vocabulary Review

back in school124
Back in School

Use the data available to you to make decisions about groupings and about instruction focus

Organize your classroom so that children engage in meaningful reading and writing practice and you can teach small groups without being interrupted

Plan for three weeks for each group and evaluated your children’s response to your instruction

considerations for your team
Considerations for your team
  • Return to the schedule for Tier I instruction that you made – are they still viable?
  • Review your most recent data – is your current instruction getting you the results you want? Are good outcomes accessible for all children?
  • Go through the grade levels and consider the needs of each of your teams
  • Brainstorm strategies for sharing the burden of instruction preparation and for developing consistency across the teams