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Face Theory of Conflict Negotation. COM 372—Theory and Research in Intercultural Communication John R. Baldwin Illinois State University. Face negotiation theory (of conflict) (Ting-Toomey, 2005). Background: Goffman

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face theory of conflict negotation

Face Theory of Conflict Negotation

COM 372—Theory and Research in

Intercultural Communication

John R. Baldwin

Illinois State University

face negotiation theory of conflict ting toomey 2005
Face negotiation theory (of conflict)(Ting-Toomey, 2005)
  • Background: Goffman
    • Face: “about identity respect and other-identity consideration issues within and beyond the actual encounter episode” (2005, p. 73)
      • “A claimed sense of favorable social self-worth that a person wants others to have of her or him” (TT&K, 1998, p. 187)
      • “An individual’s claimed sense of favorable social self-image” (p. 190)
    • Can be “threatened, enhanced, undermined, and bargained over—on both an emotional reactive level and a cognitive appraisal level” (p. 73)
face negotiation theory of conflict ting toomey 20053
Face negotiation theory (of conflict)(Ting-Toomey, 2005)
  • Background: Goffman
  • Brown & Levinson
    • Face
      • Positive and negative
      • Self and other face
    • Politeness
      • Positive: buffering sense of connection/competence
      • Negative: giving hearer a way out, softening requests, etc.
face negotiation theory ting toomey 2005
Face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 2005)
  • Background: Facework

“the specific verbal and nonverbal behaviors that we engage in to maintain or restore face loss and to uphold and honor face gain”

      • Face loss
      • FTAs
      • Preventative and

restorative facework

face negotiation theory ting toomey 20055
Face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 2005)
  • Assumptions (summarized)
    • People in all cultures negotiate face
    • Self—and thus face—is at the basis of all communication!
    • Some situations especially threaten face
    • Cultural variable differences influence aspects of face negotiation
    • Individual differences also influence face
face negotiation theory ting toomey 20056
Face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 2005)
  • Aspects of face that might be influenced:
    • Face orientation (self/other/both)
    • Face movements (defended, saved, maintained, upgraded)
    • Facework interaction strategies (V/NV—direct/indirect)
    • Conflict communication styles
    • Face content domains (positive/negative)
facework interaction strategies ting toomey 2005
Preventative Facework

Credentialing

Suspended judgment appeals

Pre-disclosure

Pre-apology

Hedging

Disclaimer

Restorative Facework

Direct aggression

Excuses

Justifications

Humor

Physical remediation

Passive aggressiveness

Avoidance

Apologies

Facework interaction strategies(Ting-Toomey, 2005)
conflict
Conflict
  • A definition: “the perceived incompatability of values, norms, processes, or goals between a minimum of two cultural parties over identity, relational, and/or substantive issues” (2002, p. 323)
  • Types
    • Expressive/Relational
    • Instrumental/Substantive
    • Identity
facework conflict strategies ting toomey 2005
Facework Conflict strategies(Ting-Toomey, 2005)

I Win

Dominating/

Controlling

Integrating/

Collaborating

Compromising

Own Goals

Avoiding/ Withdrawing

Yielding/ Obliging

I Lose

You Lose

You Win

Other’s Goals

additional strategies
Additional Strategies
  • Stella Ting-Toomey & John Oetzel
lets make some facework predictions
Lets Make Some (facework) Predictions!
  • Culture-level variables
    • Individualism/collectivism
    • Power distance
  • Individual-level variables
    • Self-construal
      • Independent/dependent
      • Biconstrual/ambivalent
  • Relational-contextual variables
    • In-group/out-group
  • Other important variables?