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Typical electric vehicles (EVs) with lead-acid batteries have a useful range of 50 to 90 miles on a single charge, depending on the vehicle. An EV with the more expensive nickel-metal-hydride batteries can have a range of 100 to 200 miles. Prototype vehicles have driven over 300 miles on a charge, under realistic driving conditions.
Fast enough to get a ticket. Most commercially produced EVs have an electronic governor that limits the speed to 80mph. Electric racers commonly exceed 100mph. Electric dragsters have turned in times under 10 seconds and over 150mph in the quarter mile. The T-Zero can out accelerate most exotic sports cars. An EV has exceeded 200mph on the Bonneville Salt Flats. How fast do you want to go?
That depends on the capacity of the electrical connection used. Commercially built vehicles are generally designed for a charger connected to a 240 volt, 40-amp service (similar to an electric stove or dryer); this will provide a full charge in 4 to 6 hours. An ordinary household outlet, 120 volts, 15 amps, will provide a full charge in 10 to 12 hours.The most common use of an EV is to drive during the day, then come home and recharge overnight. It takes only a few seconds to plug in, in the comfort of your own garage. Then your vehicle recharges while you eat, watch TV, and sleep.Fast charging is really only needed if you are expecting to exceed the range of the vehicle during the day. 15-minute fast chargers have been demonstrated.
At present, EVs are being made in quantities of a few hundred at a time, essentially hand-built vehicles. Their price is typically in $30,000 to $40,000. If made in similar quantities to gasoline-powered vehicles, the price would be similar as well. After all, an electric motor is much simpler than a gas engine.
The Toyota Prius and Honda Insight and Civic hybrids are very nice cars, and they get great gas mileage. They use electric motors and a small battery pack to achieve this efficiency. However, they should be looked at as very efficient gasoline-powered cars; the only way to put energy into them is at the gas pump. They are not zero-emission, and they will not go far without the engine running. A pure electric vehicle is even more efficient, and can be recharged from renewable sources like solar and wind. Hybrids are only half of the solution.
Fuel cells are exciting technology. They make electricity from a chemical reaction (as do batteries), and you can continuously feed in more chemicals, so the range of the vehicle is limited by the size of the fuel tank. The primary reaction uses hydrogen, but there are systems that can take a hydrogen-rich fuel such as alcohol, natural gas, or gasoline.But it will be several years yet before fuel-cell vehicles are on the road. Battery powered vehicles can be built today. And fuel cells themselves are not a magic bullet. You still need to provide the fuel to go into the cell.
Sounds great doesn’t it? But solar cells need to be big and flat and slanted towards the sun. The amount of space available on a car is really not very much. The solar power you could collect on a sunny day would be enough to drive only a few miles.A better arrangement is to put solar cells on the roof of the garage and use them to charge batteries.
No. Sadly, the laws of physics dictate that there is no free lunch. The generator on the rear wheels would slow the car more than the motor on the front wheels would move the car. (The same goes for windmill on the roof, and other such ideas). What you can do is use a generator to slow the car in conjunction with the brakes; every time you stop you recharge the batteries just a little. This won’t make a dramatic increase in the range of the car, but every little bit helps.
Although all the major manufacturers have built a few EVs, none are offered for sale in this area. Most have been made available for lease only, under various restrictions, mostly in California. The manufacturers are being cautious, at best, about introducing electric cars.You can buy used electric vehicles at reasonable prices, though you have to be prepared to maintain them. See the TEAA web page for addresses of these companies and ads for used vehicles. You can also buy electric bicycles and scooters from several vendors.