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Educational Research Chapter 2. Types of Educational Research. Quantitative – positivism – discover general principles and apply them to predict human behavior Qualitative – phenomenology – understand human behavior by focusing on the meanings that events have for the people involved.

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types of educational research
Types of Educational Research
  • Quantitative – positivism – discover general principles and apply them to predict human behavior
  • Qualitative – phenomenology – understand human behavior by focusing on the meanings that events have for the people involved.
  • Should match the method with what you are studying – can use both methods in one study
quantitative research
Quantitative Research
  • Uses objective measurement and statistical analysis of data to try to explain the causes of changes in social phenomena
  • Two types:
  • Experimental – manipulation of the independent variable; experimental and quasi experimental
  • Nonexperimental – no manipulation of the independent variable; ex post facto/causal comparative, correlational, survey
qualitative research chapt 15new
Qualitative Research (chapt 15new)
  • Approach-Qualitative Research – seeks a complete understanding of social phenomena through the researchers total immersion in the natural situation – aims at generating theory
  • Approach-Important to determine the meaning that is constructed by the participants in a particular setting
  • Generalization-Looks for patterns in events
  • Generalization-Interpret the social meaning of events
  • Generalization-Analyze relationships between events and external factors
  • Method – Direct observation and interview
  • Values-Is value bound – interplay between the researcher and participants values and beliefs.
qualitative research cont
Qualitative Research cont
  • Types
  • Ethnography – study natural behavior of a culture – field research
  • Case studies – in depth of one person, group, organization – use multiple methods to gather data
  • Document or content analysis – analyze material within its own context – example – study textbooks for their readability
  • Naturalistic Observation – study behavior as it naturally occurs – Piaget used with children – unobtrusive techniques used
qualitative cont
Qualitative cont
  • Phenomenologic studies – multiple realities in a perspective – unstructured interviews to explore thoughts and feelings
  • Grounded theory – called field data and develop theory of social phenomena
  • Historical – analyzes data to understand the past
qualitative research cont1
Qualitative Research cont
  • Major Characteristics(chapter 15new)
  • Concern for the context – human behavior inseparable from social, cultural influences
  • Natural setting – take place in the field – no manipulation of behavior
  • Human as instrument – researcher interviews, observes subjects
  • Descriptive data – deals with data in the form of words – rich descriptions of people, events, places
qualitative research cont2
Qualitative Research cont
  • Major characteristics cont
  • Emergent design – design emerges as the study enfolds
  • Inductive analysis – collect and analyze data at the same time
typical stages in research regardless of methodology
Typical Stages in Research(Regardless of Methodology)
  • Select a problem
  • Review the literature
  • Design the research
  • Collect the data
  • Analyze the data
  • Interpret the findings and state conclusions
  • Report results
additional systems of classification
Additional Systems of Classification
  • Theoretical and Practical Questions

Theoretical

-develop new theories or test existing ones – Why does one forget?

Practical

-aimed at solving specific problems encountered everyday – What is the most effective means of remediation for kids falling behind?

additional systems cont
Additional Systems cont
  • Basic and Applied Research

Basic Research

– obtain empirical data to formulate and expand theory – example – the laws of learning or reinforcement

Applied

– carried out for the purpose of solving practical problems – example – how the laws of learning or reinforcement operate in the classroom

language of research
Language of Research

Construct – an abstraction from observed events – example - intelligence. Constructs may be defined by:

constitutive definition is a formal definition in which a term is defined by using other terms - example - intelligence is the ability to think abstractly

operational definition ascribes meaning to a concept or construct by specifying the operations that must be performed in order to measure or manipulate the concept- example – intelligence is defined as score on Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence

language of research cont
Language of Research cont.
  • Variable – any attribute or property in which organisms, event, objects vary – height for example
  • Independent variable – presumed cause
  • Dependent variable – presumed effect
  • Variables are not inherently independent or dependent, depends on purpose of study
language of research continued
Language of Research (continued)

Example:

  • Effect of motivation (independent) on achievement
  • Effect of testing procedures on motivation (dependent)
  • Categorical variables – sort into mutually exclusive groups – example – religions, countries
  • Continuous variables – infinite number of values within a give range - example - height
  • Constant – a fixed value within a study – if only dealing with preschool girls – then “preschool girls” is a constant even though grade level and gender are variables.