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Cultural Globalization. The View on Cultural Change from Globalization Frameworks. Hyperglobalizers : homogenization of world under American popular culture or Western consumerism

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the view on cultural change from globalization frameworks
The View on Cultural Change from Globalization Frameworks
  • Hyperglobalizers: homogenization of world under American popular culture or Western consumerism
  • Political Sceptics: thinness of global culture relative to national cultures. Cultural differences and conflicts along geopolitical faultlines.
  • Transformationalists: intermingling of cultures and peoples: hybrids and new forms
what is culture4
What is Culture?
  • Social construction, articulation ad reception of meaning (Held, et al 1998)
    • The arts
    • Commodified output of the culture industries (Film, TV, Music)
    • Spontaneous expressions of everyday life
    • Complex interactions between all of these
what is culture5
What is Culture?
  • Religion
  • Ethnicity
  • Nationalism
  • Language
  • Other forms of Identity
  • The importance of forms of Communication
cultural globalization concepts
Cultural Globalization-concepts
  • Cultural globalization: the transmission of culture globally
  • Facilitated by the movement of people, objects, signs and symbols.
    • Travel
    • Movement of books and cultural artifacts
  • Key: forms of communication and transportation
cultural globalization concepts7
Cultural Globalization-Concepts
  • Stretching
  • Diffusion
  • Deepening: wearing the groove deeper
  • Diverse encounters:
    • Homogenization
    • Contestation
    • Hybridization
    • Indifference
cultural globalization concepts8
Cultural Globalization-Concepts
  • Is it all Coercion?
    • Proselytism
    • Evangelism
    • Empire
  • Better: “Modes of interaction”
    • Imposition
    • Emulation
    • Diffusion: hierarchical, contagious, relocation
cultural globalization concepts9
Cultural Globalization-Concepts
  • Infrastructures and Institutionalization: regularized and embedded change
    • Transportation and communication technologies
    • Social organization and systems: shipbuilding, mapmaking, shipping companies, international satellite companies, regulatory regimes, TV programming
    • Languages: educational systems, training of teachers
cultural globalization historical perspective
Cultural Globalization: Historical Perspective
  • World Religions
  • Empires
  • Modern national cultures
  • Transnational secular ideologies
  • Contemporary cultural globalization
cultural globalization historical perspective11
Cultural Globalization: Historical Perspective
  • World Religions: Christianity, Islam, Confucianism, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism- none is present everywhere
  • Some odd pockets
    • 1 million Japanese Shintoists in Brazil
    • Goan Catholics on west coast of India
  • Religious/Political/Military Power
    • Christianity
    • Islam
  • No proselytizing: Confusionism/Hinduism
cultural globalization historical perspective14
Cultural Globalization: Historical Perspective
  • By 3 C. bce: Buddhism and Hinduism had their contemporary spread
  • 700 ce: Islam in core regions
  • 16th/17th C. :Christianity reaches global presence (Books)
  • World religions have given religious and political elites immense power and resources, ability to mobilize armies, and “governance”
empires
Empires
  • Role of cultural power in creating and maintaining political empires
    • Difficult to enforce rule at a distance
    • Armies and governments are expensive
    • Indirect rule: Universal ruling class
      • Kinship, belief, religion
      • Political divisions become vertical between classes
    • Diffusion of culture provides cohesion
roman empire
Roman Empire
  • Capacity to deploy political power.
  • Accomplished through innovations:
    • Logistical capabilities and civil engineering
    • Political community
    • Class solidarity
    • Shared cultural beliefs, rituals and aesthetics
  • Literacy was key among ruling class
  • Drama and poetry were used to build allegiance
the british empire
The British Empire
  • Most global of any formal empire: “the sun never sets on the British Empire”
  • Imperial educational policy
    • English medium schools in India, etc.
    • Elites went to Oxford and Cambridge
  • Imperial communications infrastructure
    • Telegraph to India by 1870
modern national cultures
Modern National Cultures
  • Nation: cross-class community, whose shared sense of identity, solidarity and interest is rooted in an national identity ad common historical experience (real, imagined or interpreted) and whose central political project is the possession of a distinctive state in a bounded territory.
  • Nationalism: Psychological and cultural affiliation creating a connection with the community of the nation
    • Ethnic nationalism
    • Civic nationalism
  • National culture: complex bodies of real and imagined practice, belief, ritual and attitude
modern national cultures20
Modern National Cultures
  • Non existent before 18th century: Treaty of Westphalia
  • National cultures invented and developed over time
  • Cultural preconditions:
    • Literacy
    • National histories, myths and rituals,
    • Importance of state powers of taxation and conscription
national cultures
National Cultures
  • Task undertaken by diverse institutions
    • Official language
    • National schooling system
    • Postal service and Communications structures (NBC, ABC etc.) National press
    • Standing army
  • Suppression or eradication of competing identities and peripheral nationalisms
  • Key factors
    • Memories/histories/myths
    • Role of land/landscapes/places:
      • Monuments
      • National Parks
      • sites of battle
transnational secular ideologies
Transnational Secular Ideologies
  • European modern culture is secular
  • Socialism and Marxism
  • Enlightenment ideologies:
    • Modern scientific worldview
    • liberal political discourse:
      • civil and political rights
      • Limited government
      • Self-determination
    • Capitalism
  • Globalism?
cultural globalization global culture markets
Cultural Globalization/Global Culture Markets
  • Technologically driven
  • Economic liberalization driven: mergers and acquisitions,deregulation, free trade barriers reducedconcentration of ownership
  • Dominated by US, but Japanese, UK, and others are present (see chart)
global media
Global Media
  • Radio and the music industry
    • Political instrument: Voice of America, Radio Venceremos
    • Instrument of Localism
    • Major source of communication in developing countries for community/political/entertainment
    • Music is highly compatible with globalization: no need for translation
    • Musical diaspora: religious, African, American
    • Modern forms are more mixed: Orquesta de Luz, El Vez, World Music
cinema and television
Cinema and Television
  • US Dominates Film
  • Increasing growth of new film industries
  • Other industries: see chart
  • Television: more recent, higher level of individual capital investment
  • Public quality initially, now Satellite and Cable have changed control to private.
tourism
Tourism
  • Issues:
    • Expanding Awareness
    • Sex Tourism
    • Ecotourism and Rural Tourism: Contradictions?
    • Cultural Survival:
      • Who controls the production of culture?
      • Tourism as an economic generator
tourism29
Tourism
  • 1950: 25.3 million tourists/$2 Billion
  • 1995: 561 million tourists/$380 Billion
  • International Tourists:
  • Country% of Tourists
  • Europe 53%,
  • Americas 17%
  • Asia (Japan, Taiwan, Korea) 17%
  • Africa 2.5%
  • Middle East 1.2%
  • South Asia .6%