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Coal Ash Use and Disposal. Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett, Associate Gypsum Parameters 20 Fenton Avenue Grand Forks, North Dakota 58203 218-791-7729 Advising Industry on Strategic Development of FGD Gypsum Resources. CCP Use and Disposal Background. Fly Ash. Bottom Ash.

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coal ash use and disposal

Coal Ash Use and Disposal

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett, AssociateGypsum Parameters20 Fenton AvenueGrand Forks, North Dakota 58203218-791-7729

Advising Industry on Strategic Development of FGD Gypsum Resources

ccp use and disposal background
CCP Use and DisposalBackground

Fly Ash

Bottom Ash

FGD Gypsum

Boiler Slag

ccp use and disposal background4
CCP Use and DisposalBackground
  • 2008 Statistics
    • 136,073,107 short tons produced in the U.S.
    • 60,593,660 short tons or 44.5 % were used
    • 75,479,447 short tons or 55.5 % were disposed
    • Fly ash is the largest CCP stream produced in the U.S.
    • FGD materials include gypsum and other calcium- and sodium-based materials
    • Fluidized Bed Combustion ash is another type of CCP produced in the U.S.
primary ccp use applications
Primary CCP Use Applications
  • Cement/concrete/grout
  • Raw feed for cement clinker
  • Flowable fill and structural fill
  • Road base/subbase
  • Mining applications
  • Wallboard
  • Mineral filler
  • Waste stabilization/solidification
  • Soil modification

DOE/NETL Funded Approaches for Controlling Mercury













or ESP



  • ACI
  • Amended silicates
  • Halogenated AC
  • Ca-based sorbents
  • Chemically treated sorbents
  • COHPAC/Toxecon™
  • Thief sorbents
  • Oxidation catalysts
  • Reagent addition
  • Ultraviolet radiation (GP-254)
  • Electrocatalytic oxidation
  • SCR oxidation
  • Coal cleaning
  • Cl-based additives
  • Combustion modifications
  • MerCAP™
  • ECO/Wet ESP
2000 regulatory determination 65 fed reg 32214
2000 Regulatory Determination(65 Fed. Reg. 32214)
  • “Remaining Wastes” do not warrant hazardous waste regulations
  • No federal regulation when used beneficially
  • EPA does “not wish to place any unnecessary barriers on beneficial use”
  • No damage cases from CCP utilization
2000 regulatory determination continued
2000 Regulatory Determination (continued)
  • No damage cases from mine placement
  • SMCRA “is expressly designed to address environmental risks associated with coal mines.” (65 Fed. Reg. at 32217)
  • EPA to develop national regulations under Subtitle D (or Modify SMCRA) for CCBs used in Mine-filling operations
ccp regulation in 2008 disposal
CCP Regulation in 2008 Disposal
  • RCRA Subtitle C regulation of CCPs not warranted.
  • Options:
    • National Subtitle D standards
    • Application of Industrial D guidance
    • Development and implementation of USWAG CCP Action Plan
    • Status quo (state regulatory control)
ccp regulation in 2008 disposal utilization
CCP Regulation in 2008Disposal & Utilization
  • State-by-state under RCRA Subtitle D
  • State regulation varies significantly
    • DOE, EPA, and industry evaluate individual states
  • EPA Evaluates Damage Cases
    • 24 Damage Cases identified
    • 42 Potential Damage Cases identified
ccp regulation in 2008 mine placement
CCP Regulation in 2008 Mine Placement
  • Managing Coal Combustion Residues in Mines” (2006) Summary of findings:
    • Mineplacement is a “Viable Option”
    • No Damage from CCP Mineplacement was Found
    • Recommendations:
      • Improved characterization of CCPs and Mine Sites
      • Robust Monitoring of Sites
      • Development of “Enforceable Federal Standards”
    • Beneficial Use of CCPs was Encouraged
ccp regulation in 2008 mine placement14
CCP Regulation in 2008 Mine Placement
  • Options Considered:
    • Consider RCRA Subtitle C regulations
    • Consider RCRA standards
    • Implement status quo (state regulatory control under SMCRA and/or RCRA authorities)
  • Option Selected
    • Develop rules under SMCRA
    • Draft rules were developed by OSM
december 22 2008
December 22, 2008
  • Fly Ash Spill at Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Station Disposal Site
    • CCP Regulation Gets Attention
    • During her Senate confirmation hearing in January 2009, Lisa P. Jackson, President Obama’s choice for to head the EPA, indicated that she intended to immediately review coal ash disposal sites across the U.S.
recent developments
Recent Developments
  • EPA Coal Combustion Products Partnership (C2P2) lowers its utilization goal and excludes mine placement from its estimates.
  • The CCP industry works to educate Congressional delegates.
  • The CCP industry works to get support for maintaining CCPs as solid wastes.
  • TVA Clean up continues.
  • An EPA evaluation of CCP disposal sites identifies 49 with high hazard potential.
and now
And Now…..
  • EPA’s Regulation was scheduled for release in January 2010, but still has not been released.
  • The mine placement rules continue to be held until after the CCP regulation is a known entity.
  • The CCP industry continues to work to address CCP issues related to mercury, sulfur trioxide, and NOx emissions.


Contact Information:

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett

Gypsum Parameters

20 Fenton Avenue

Grand Forks, North Dakota 58203


Advising Industry on Strategic Development of FGD Gypsum Resources