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Chapter 6 CELLULAR OXIDATION What Is Oxidation? Oxidation = the process of removing an electron form a molecule (e.g. Hydrogen) In the case of energy production, the electron provides the energy needed to reform ATP from ADP and P Ultimately, the H will combine with O 2 to form H 2 O

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

CELLULAR OXIDATION

what is oxidation
What Is Oxidation?
  • Oxidation = the process of removing an electron form a molecule (e.g. Hydrogen)
  • In the case of energy production, the electron provides the energy needed to reform ATP from ADP and P
  • Ultimately, the H will combine with O2 to form H2O
  • Oxidation involves the Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain, and Beta Oxidation
where does oxidation occur
Where Does Oxidation Occur?
  • Mitochondria (plural)
  • Mitochondria are located in two areas
    • Subsarcolemmal
    • Intermyofibillar
  • Red in color
  • Outer membrane
  • Intermembrane space
    • Cristea
    • F complexes
  • Inner membrane
what are the functions of the krebs cycle
What are the Functions of the Krebs Cycle?
  • An imperfect cycle
  • Products
    • CO2
    • ATP
    • H
  • Which product is most important?
  • Why?
slide8

The Krebs Cycle

  • 3 CO2
  • 1 ATP (GTP)
  • 4 NADH
  • 1 FADH
how does pyruvate enter the krebs cycle
How Does Pyruvate Enter the Krebs Cycle?
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) – a rate limiting enzyme
  • Function/Products
    • Pyruvate to Acetate
    • Add Coenzyme A
    • Produces Acetyl-CoA, CO2, NADH
  • Stimulated by NAD, ADP, CoA
  • Inhibited by NADH, ATP, Acetyl CoA
actyl coa
Actyl-CoA
  • Sources of Actyl-CoA
    • Glucose (Pyruvate)
    • Fatty acids
    • Amino acids
  • Combines with OAA to form citric acid
key enzymes
Key Enzymes
  • Isocitric Dehydrogenase (IDH)
  • The rating limiting enzyme
  • Inhibited by NADH
  • Stimulated by NAD+
what is the function of nadh and fadh
What is the Function of NADH and FADH?
  • Transport H to Electron Transport Chain
  • NADH give 3 ATP for every H
  • FADH give 2 ATP for every H
what happens in the electron transport chain
What Happens in the Electron Transport Chain?
  • Inner mitochondrial membrane
  • Oxidation – removal of electrons (H)
    • Series of steps from higher to lower energy
    • A chemical and electrical gradient is formed
more electron transport chain
Phosphorlyation: ADP + P  ATP

Re-entry of H provide energy (Fig. 6-10)

Linked to the formation of water

Oxygen is the final electron acceptor

H2O

More Electron Transport Chain
slide18

GLYCOLYSIS

Start with glucose

slide19

GLYCOLYSIS

End with pyruvate

slide20

KREBS CYCLE

Start with pyruvate being converted to Acetyl-CoA

End up with… NADH/FADH

CO2

ATP

slide24

ALL TOGETHER

  • GLYCOLYSIS
  • KREBS
  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
slide25

ALL TOGETHER

  • GLYCOLYSIS
  • KREBS
  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
  • ALL TOGETHER
  • GLYCOLYSIS
  • KREBS
  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

NAD NADH

Lactic Acid

anaerobic and aerobic
Anaerobic and Aerobic
  • Initially, most glucose is used aerobicly
  • As more glucose is required, due to an increase in intensity, more NADH
  • If the additional NADH cannot transfer H to mitochondria, then lactate levels increase
  • The more O2 that is supplied to the mitochondria, the less H will be used to convert pyruvate to lactate
oxygen supply
Oxygen Supply
  • Increase cardiac output
    • Increase heart size
    • Increase blood volume
    • Increase red blood cells
  • Increase capillaries
  • Increase myoglobin
mitochondria and training
Mitochondria and Training
  • Larger or more mitochondria (double)
  • Same activity level per mito
  • Higher resting metabolic rate
  • Stimulators of new mito:
    • Hypoxia
    • ADP
    • Pi
slide29

Carbon Dioxide

VCO2

Oxygen

LUNGS

Ventilation

HEART

Cardiac

Output

MUSCLE

Oxidation

O2

CO2

  • Energy
  • ATP
  • Kcal

Carbon Dioxide

Oxygen

VO2

key topics
Key Topics
  • Using glucose/glycogen as an aerobic fuel
    • Fate of pyruvate
    • Krebs cycle
    • Electron transport chain
    • Role of oxygen
  • Measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2)
slide31

Assignment

  • By Monday, one question each from chapters 7 & 8.