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Chapter 10 Cities and Urban Economies. Relation between urban growth and capitalist development Central place theory Economic base model Housing markets in urban areas Gentrification processes & poverty The development of global cities. Town Plan in Old Savannah. Savannah was the

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chapter 10 cities and urban economies
Chapter 10 Cities and Urban Economies
  • Relation between urban growth and capitalist development
  • Central place theory
  • Economic base model
  • Housing markets in urban areas
  • Gentrification processes & poverty
  • The development of global cities
slide3

Savannah was the

cotton capital of the

South in the early

19th Century.

The first steam

powered ship to

cross the Atlantic

went from Savannah

to Liverpool

in about 1830.

Today the waterfront

is offices and

tourist facilities

urban division of labor
Urban Division of Labor
  • Central Business Districts to urban peripheries
  • Residential Location Decisions
  • Filtering Model of Housing – Fig 10.7 – alternative mechanisms for price rises
  • Population Density Gradients
  • Alternative Patterns of Urban Development: concentric rings, sectors, and multi-nuclei
spatial evolution of the american metropolis adams model
Spatial Evolution of the American Metropolis: Adams Model

Stage I: Pre Electric Trolley

Stage II: Electric Streetcars

Stage III: Automobile Era

Stage IV: High-speed

expressways to

distant suburbs

BUT

Not all cities have been

Through all these phases!

S

location rents in urban areas

Location Rents in Urban Areas

Location Rent

Industrial

Residential

Agricultural

Distance from Center

Commercial

typical population density gradients
Typical Population Density Gradients

Urban Growth Boundary

Under Growth Management

Act to limit sprawl

Rethinking mix of

Housing and commercial

Activity in central cities

sprawling metropolis patterns and problems
Sprawling Metropolis: Patterns and Problems
  • Classic models of urban land use are problematic in the automobile era
  • Suburbs fueled by population explosion in cities (immigrants) + filtering of settlement (Tiebout processes)
  • The suburban development syndrome: Fig. 10.8 + low mortgage interest rates + federal housing loan guarantees + tax benefits for household ownership + cheap land + low cost transportation + highway subsidies
warf s exurban sprawl
Warf’s Exurban Sprawl

Not all are “vast conurbations with millions of people apiece”

gentrification
Gentrification
  • Gentrification in housing – reversing (to some extent) the suburban flight – related to changing family structure (esp. multiple workers) and to changing employment structure (esp. advanced services)
  • Gentrification in buildings – rise of advanced services with a preference for inner city locations – recycled spaces
american city problems
American City Problems
  • Some aspects of this section are hard to appreciate here in the Puget Sound area
  • Table 10.1 – documenting central city population decline, Figure 10.12 depicts the downward spiral of resources fueling urban decay
  • The rise of inner-city ghettos and strong concentrations of African American families caught in a cycle creating an underclass, marked by low wages, poor housing, poor schools, lack of health care and high crime rates
  • The text emphasizes African Americans, but similar situations exist for other groups, including Hispanic, eastern European and Russian, Southeast Asian, African immigrants
  • Hurricane Katrina revealed the depth of these problems in New Orleans and the weakness of social programs to help the poor
the spatial mismatch principle
The Spatial Mismatch Principle
  • Skills of many inner city residents do not match up well to inner city job opportunities
  • Job opportunities for these people tend to be better in suburbs
  • Costs to commute to these jobs are high for poorer people (reverse commuting)
  • But barriers in hiring lead to discouraged workers and dropout from the labor force
the global cities argument
A shift of scale: from the regional to the national and then to the GLOBAL

Bases of the concept of global cities

Global corporate structures

New York, London, and Tokyo as key centers of power

The decentralization of production and the diffusion of corporate control centers

Criteria for Fig. 10.21? Western hemisphere looks fine to me, but Eastern hemisphere has some problems

The Global Cities Argument
chapter 10 summary comments
Chapter 10: Summary Comments
  • Cities are a key product of the industrial revolution and the development of capitalist economies
  • Trade between city-regions is the basis of the global economy
  • People work in cities in spaces that are unequal, and have rewards that are unequal
  • Cities dominate the planet’s economy, and are of critical importance in processes of social and economic development