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Aviation Weather Information. Resources. Aviation Weather Services AC00-45E Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chapter 11 AIM Chapter 7 Jeppesen Private Pilot Manual Chapter 7. Objective. Gain a better understanding of weather products

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resources
Resources
  • Aviation Weather Services
    • AC00-45E
  • Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
    • Chapter 11
  • AIM
    • Chapter 7
  • Jeppesen Private Pilot Manual
    • Chapter 7
objective
Objective
  • Gain a better understanding of weather products
  • Given the following scenario, make a competent go/no go decision
  • Why or why not?
cross country
Cross Country
  • You are flying from Washington Dulles Int’l Airport to Cincinnati, OH in the Cadet.
  • Approximate trip time will be 3 hours at 75% best power
satellite
Satellite
  • Types
    • GOES; equator
      • Geostationary Operational Environmental satellite
    • POES; polar orbit
      • Polar Orbiter Environmental Satellite
  • Imagery
    • Visible
      • Shows clouds reflecting sunslight
      • Whiter=thicker
    • Infrared
      • Heat radiation emitted by clouds and Earth
      • Temperature differences
      • Measure cloud top temperatures and are used to approximate the height of clouds
surface analysis chart
Surface Analysis Chart
  • What
    • Frontal Analysis
    • Observation
    • Isobars (1032 = 1,032mb)
    • Location of pressure systems and fronts
    • Overview of winds, temperatures and dew point temperatures
    • Use in conjunction with other wx products
  • When
    • Every 3 hours
    • 12 and 24-hour forecast data are produced four times per day at approximately 0300, 0900, 1500, 2100 UTC.
    • 36 and 48-hour forecast data are produced twice daily at approximately 0600 and 1800 UTC.
surface analysis symbology
Surface Analysis Symbology
  • Key to Features1 -- Cold Front 2 -- Warm Front 3 -- Stationary Front 4 -- Occluded Front 5 -- Trough ("TROF") 6 -- Squall Line 7 -- Dry Line 8 -- Tropical Wave ("TRPCL WAVE")
surface analysis current
Surface Analysis - Current
  • What would you expect the weather in Main to be like? Why?
    • Nevada?
  • What type of front is coming down from Canada and into the Dakotas?
metar
METAR
  • Type of report
    • METAR
  • Identifier
    • METAR KGFK
  • Date and time
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z
    • 6th day of the month, 22:53 Z (5:53pm CST)
  • Modifier
    • Will tell you if it is automated (no human’s) will also then tell you AO1 (no precipitation discriminator) AO2 (Has a precipitation discriminator)
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO
metar13
METAR
  • Wind
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO 07020
    • 070 at 20 knots
    • If speed is over 99kts, three digits: 070120
    • If speed is less than 3 knots, wind reported as calm: 00000KT
    • If gusty: G will be reported before the gust: 07020G36KT
    • If the wind direction is variable by 60 degrees or more and the speed is greater than 6 knots, a variable group will be added
      • 07020G36 040V105
  • Wind remarks
    • Whenever peak wind exceeds 25 knots, PK WND will be included in the Remarks element of the next report
    • Three digits for direction and two or three for speed followed by the time in hours and minutes when it occurred
    • PK WND 07036/15
    • If a wind shift occurs, WSHFT will be included in the remarks followed by the time the windshift began
      • Change in wind direction of 45 degrees or morein less than 15 minutes with sustained winds of 10 knots or more throughout
    • WSHFT 30
metar14
METAR
  • Visibility
    • Prevailing visibility at the observing site
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO07020 7SM
  • Visibility Remarks
    • If tower or surface visibility is less than 4 statute miles, the lesser of the two will be reported in the body of the report; the greater will be in Remarks
      • TWR VIS 1 ½
    • Automated stations will show vis less than 1/4th statute mile as M1/4SM
  • Runway visual range
    • Not always reported
    • Runway heading followed by visual range in feet
    • R35L/4500FT or, if it is variable, R35L/4500v6000FT
    • If at minimum: M0600, if at Max: P6000
metar15
METAR
  • Wx phenomena
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO070207SM -SHRA
    • Qualifiers and Phenomena
    • (-) Light, ( ) Moderate, (+) Heavy
metar16
METAR
  • Sky Condition
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO070207SM–SHRA FEW020
    • Cloud bases are reported with three digits in hundreds of feet AGL
    • Type: TCU or CB will reported
metar17
METAR
  • Temperature and Dew point
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO070207SM–SHRA FEW020 02/M3
    • Negative temperatures will be preceded with “M”
  • Altimeter
    • METAR KGFK 062253Z AUTO070207SM–SHRA FEW020 02/M3 A2992
    • Altimeter Remarks:
      • PRESRR for Pressure Rising Rapidly
      • PRESFR for Pressure Falling Rapidly
    • Some stations may have SLP (sea level pressure)
      • SLP982
metar18
METAR
  • Remarks
    • Included when appropriate
dulles metars
Dulles METARs
  • KIAD 082051Z 31017G26KT 10SM BKN048 BKN250 M01/M09 A2949 RMK AO2 PK WND 29031/20 SLP986 T10061094
  • KIAD 081740Z 081818 33020G30KT P6SM BKN050 FM2300 31018G27KT P6SM FEW050 FM1200 29015G21KT P6SM FEW050
  • Remarks: Automated with precip encoder, peak wind 290@ 31kts, 20 minutes after the hour, SLP 1009.86, Temp -0.06, dew point -09.4
terminal area forecast
Terminal Area Forecast
  • Forecast
  • Expected conditions within a 5 statute mile radius from the center of an airports runway complex during a 24 hour time period
  • Issued 4 times daily at 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z and 1800Z
terminal area forecasts
Terminal Area Forecasts
  • Type of Forecast
  • Identifier
  • Date and Time
  • Valid Period
  • Wind Forecast
  • Visibility Forecast
  • Significant weather Forecast
  • Sky Condition Forecast
  • Non-convective low level wind shear forecast
  • Forecast Change Indictors
  • Probability Forecast
terminal area forecasts22
Terminal Area Forecasts
  • Significant Weather
    • Thunderstorms
    • Fog
    • Showers
    • In the vicinity of the area: VC
  • Sky Condition
    • Ceiling
      • Lowest layer of Broken, Overcast or VV
      • Vertical Visibility (VV) when the sky is obscured due to surface based phenomenon
terminal area forecast23
Terminal Area Forecast
  • Forecast Change Indicators
    • From Group (FM): Rapid and significant change from previous forecast until next group
    • Becoming (BECMG) Group: A gradual change is expected to occur over a certain period of time
    • Temporary (Tempo) Group: Conditions expected to last for less than an hour
    • Probability (PROB) Group: Condition may occur- chance indicated by % sign. Followed by a time group. Ex. PROB30 0506
area metars and tafs
Area METARs and TAFs
  • Ronald Reagan Washington Nat’l Airport

KDCA 082051Z 33024G38KT 10SM FEW050 SCT150 00/M11 A2947 RMK AO2 PK WND 31038/2047 PRESRR SLP979 T00001106 53052

KDCA 081740Z 081818 32022G32KT P6SM OVC040

FM2300 31018G25KT P6SM SCT050

FM0900 29016G22KT P6SM FEW050

  • New Castle

KILG 082051Z AUTO 30019G31KT 10SM FEW095 M02/M09 A2931 RMK AO2 PK WND 30040/2038 SLP923 60000 T10221094 53048 TSNO

KILG 082045Z 082118 32020G30KT 3SM -SN SCT020 OVC040 TEMPO 2122 P6SM NSW BKN040

FM2200 31018G35KT P6SM BKN040

FM0600 29015G25KT P6SM SCT040

FM1400 28012KT P6SM BKN040

go no go process
Go/No go process
  • Is it VFR?
  • Within my minimums?
  • What is the temp/dewpoint spread?
  • Deteriorating or Improving?
cincinnati metar taf
Cincinnati METAR/TAF
  • KLUK 081953Z 28010G20KT 10SM BKN047 BKN055 00/M08 A2986 RMK AO2 SLP114 T00001083
  • KLUK 082034Z 082118 31012KT P6SM BKN045 TEMPO 2124 1SM -SHSN OVC028 FM0200 32007KT P6SM SCT040 FM0800 31003KT P6SM SCT250 FM1400 30011KT P6SM SCT040 BKN250
cincinnati area tafs
Cincinnati Area TAFs
  • KHTS 082051Z 29012KT 3SM -SN OVC010 M01/ A2981 RMK AO2 SNB1957E07B50 SLP103 P0000 60000 T1011 53021 $

KHTS 082055Z 082118 31011G20KT P6SM -SHSN BKN035

TEMPO 2123 3SM -SHSN BKN010

FM0000 30007KT P6SM SCT035

FM1400 28006KT P6SM SCT120

  • KDAY 082048Z 31013KT 1/2SM R06L/2200V4500FT SN FZFG BKN008 BKN027 OVC065 M04/M06 A2984 RMK AO2 SNB38 P0000
  • KDAY 082034Z 082118 31015KT P6SM BKN035
  • TEMPO 2124 2SM -SHSN OVC025
  • FM0200 30010KT P6SM BKN040
enroute metar taf
Enroute METAR/TAF

KCRW 082054Z 28013KT 5SM -SN SCT012 BKN020 OVC031 M03/M08 A2977 RMK AO2 SLP091 P0000 60000 T10281078 53023 $

KCRW 082031Z 082118 31012G20KT 4SM -SN BKN025 TEMPO 2123 2SM -SHSN BKN010

FM0000 31008KT P6SM BKN035

FM0200 31007KT P6SM SCT035

FM1500 28006KT P6SM SCT120

enroute metar taf29
Enroute METAR/TAF

KEKN 082058Z 00000KT 1SM -SN FEW009 BKN017 OVC025 M06/M11 A2961 RMK AO2 VIS 1/4V5 P0000

KEKN 082033Z 082118 32010G20KT 2SM -SN OVC015

TEMPO 2123 1/4SM +SHSN BKN005

FM2300 32013G22KT 3SM -SHSN OVC025

TEMPO 2302 1SM -SHSN OVC015

FM0200 31010G17KT 4SM -SHSN OVC025

FM0600 30009KT 5SM -SHSN OVC025

FM1000 30007KT P6SM BKN025

FM1200 30005KT P6SM SCT025

go no go process30
Go/No go process
  • Is it VFR?
  • Within my minimums?
  • What is the temp/dewpoint spread?
  • Deteriorating or Improving?
area forecast
Area Forecast
  • Forecast of visual meteorological conditions, clouds and general wx over several states
  • Can interpolate conditions at airports for which no TAFs are issued
  • 3xday
  • 4 parts
    • Product Header
    • Precautionary Statements
    • Synopsis (18hrs)
    • VFR Clouds and weather (12hrs with a 6 hours categorical outlook i.e. MVFR, VFR, IFR)
product header precautionary statement
Product Header/Precautionary Statement
  • BOSC FA 081845
  • SYNOPSIS AND VFR CLDS/WX
  • SYNOPSIS VALID UNTIL 091300CLDS/WX VALID UNTIL 090700...OTLK VALID 090700-091300
  • ME NH VT MA RI CT NY LO NJ PA OH LE WV MD DC DE VA AND CSTL WTRS.
  • SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDS AND MTN OBSCN.TS IMPLY SEV OR GTR TURB SEV ICE LLWS AND IFR CONDS. NON MSL HGTS DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG..
synopsis
Synopsis

- Brief summary of the location and movements of fronts, pressure systems and other circulation features in an 18 hour period

  • SYNOPSIS...STG LOW PRES SYS JUST S OF LONG ISLAND WITH CDFNTEXTDG SWD ACRS SRN FL AND STNRY FNT EXTD NEWD TOWARDS NS. LOWWILL MOVE NNEWD TO MOUTH OF ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BY 13Z.
  • Translation: Stagnant low pressure system just South of Long island with cold front extending southward across southern Florida and stationary front extending Northeastward towards Nova Scotia. Low will move north, northeastward to the mouth of St. Lawrence river by 13Z.
vfr clouds and wx dc
VFR Clouds and Wx (DC)
  • VA MD DC DEERN VA/MD/DC/DE...OVC015-025. OCNL -SN BR. 33020G30KT. BECMG 0104 SCT030-050. OTLK...VFR WIND.
  • WRN VA...OVC030-050. TOPS 120-140. WDLY SCT -SHSN BR. 30015G25KT. OTLK...MVFR CIGS BECMG 1013 VFR..
vfr clouds and wx oh
VFR Clouds and Wx (OH)
  • OH LEWRN OH...BKN040-050. TOPS 100. ISOL -SHSN. BECMG 2201 SCT040-050. OTLK...VFR.ERN
  • OH/LE...BKN-OVC030. TOPS 100-120. WDLY SCT -SHSN. BECMG 0407 BKN-SCT050. TOPS 080-100. OTLK...VFR.
winds aloft fd
Winds Aloft (FD)
  • Forecast winds and temperatures aloft
  • Come out twice daily (0Z and 12Z)
  • All temperatures assumed negative after 24,000 feet
  • Light and Variable: 9900
  • If wind direction is 100 or greater, 50 is added to the direction
    • Ex. 731960 = 230@119 -60
winds aloft
Winds Aloft
  • Wash:
    • EKN 3336-18 3147-18 3048-22 2541-29 2443-37 265640 265941 266342
  • Enroute
    • CRW 3121 3231-16 3140-18 3047-23 2953-32 2964-36 288339 288841 276243
  • Cincinnati
    • CVG 3318 3326-16 3037-18 3044-24 3176-31 8107-37 791042 299744 297143
sigmet
SIGMET
  • SIGMET forecast period: 4 hours
    • Potentially hazardous to all aircraft
    • Unscheduled
    • Severe Icing not associated with TS
    • Severe or extreme TB or CAT not associated with TS
    • Dust storms or sandstorms lowering surface or inflight vis to below 3 miles
    • Volcanic Ash
  • Convective SIGMET
    • Severe TS due to
      • Surface winds 50kts +
      • Hail at the sfc greater than or equal to ¾ inches in diameter
      • Tornadoes
    • Embedded TS
    • Line of TS
    • TS with precip greater than or equal to heavy precip affecting 40% or more of an area at least 3,000 square miles
airmet
AIRMET
  • AIRMET forecast period: 6 hours
    • Sierra: IFR or extensive mountain obscurations
    • Tango: Moderate TB, 30kt sustained winds, nonconvective LLWS
    • Zulu: Moderate icing, FZL LVL heights
airmet sigmet
AIRMET/SIGMET

FROM YYZ TO SLT TO 50N CSN TO PSK TO HMV TO HNN TO CVG TO 40NNE FWA TO DXO TO YYZ

OCNL MOD RIME OR MXD ICGICIP BLW 100. CONDS CONTG BYD 03Z...ENDG BY 09Z.

FRZLVL...SFC-040 NW OF PQI-GSO LN RSG RPDLY TO 080-100 OVR CSTL WTRS

  • ....

FROM YYZ TO SLT TO 50N CSN TO PSK TO HMV TO HNN TO CVG TO 40NNE

FWA TO DXO TO YYZ

OCNL MOD RIME OR MXD ICGICIP BLW 100. CONDS CONTG BYD 03Z...ENDG BY 09Z.

FRZLVL...SFC-040 NW OF PQI-GSO LN RSG RPDLY TO 080-100 OVR CSTL WTRS

airmet sigmet41
AIRMET/SIGMET

AIRMET SIERRA UPDT 3 FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL 090300

AIRMET MTN OBSCN....ME NH VT MA NY PA WV VA MD NC SC GA

TO JHW TO SYR TO MSS TO 60NW PQI

FROM 60NW PQI TO HUL TO CON TO HAR TO 40SSW PSK TO HMV TO HNN

MTNS OCNL OBSC CLDS/PCPN/FG/BR. CONDS CONTG BYD 03Z...ENDG OVR

SRN PTNS AREA BY 09Z.

....

OMN TO CTY TO 40W CEW TO 50SW ABY TO GQO TO HMV TO HNN TO CVG TO

FWA TO DXO

OCNL MOD TURB BTN FL240 AND FL390. CONDS CONTG BYD 03Z THRU 09Z.

LLWS POTENTIAL BLW AGL 020 EXISTS E OF MSS-SYR-BKW-HMV LN DUE TO

STG AND GUSTY LOW LVL FLOW. CONDS CONTG E OF SYR-SIE LN BYD 03Z

THRU 09Z.

....

pirep ua
PIREP (UA)
  • UA = United Airlines
  • Only means of observing icing and turbulence
  • All pilots encouraged
  • MSL/UTC
  • Content
    • UUA/UA/OV/TM/FL/TP/SK/WX/TA/WV/TB/IC/RM
pilot reports ua
Pilot Reports (UA)

PIREP 20:58Z 03/08/05

HLG UA /OV AIR/TM 2058/FL370/TP H25B/WV 274057/TB NEG

PIREP 20:58Z 03/08/05

HLG UA /OV AIR/TM 2058/FL370/TP H25B/WV 274057/TB NEG

PIREP 20:58Z 03/08/05

HLG UA /OV AIR/TM 2058/FL370/TP H25B/WV 274057/TB NEG

PIREP 19:45Z 03/08/05

AGC UUA /OV AGC /TM 1945 /FL UNKN /TP H25B /TB LGT-MOD 005-SFC /RM LLWS +/- 10 DURD AGC

interpreting a pirep
Interpreting a PIREP
  • Type Aircraft?
  • Why so few?
  • Significance?
go no go
Go/No Go?
  • Deteriorating v. Improving weather
  • Personal minimums v. VFR minimums
  • Temp/dew point spread
  • Visible moisture
  • AIRMETs/Convective Activity
  • Area weather systems
radar summary chart
Radar Summary Chart
  • Graphical display of radar weather reports
  • Identifies areas of precipitation and thunderstorms
  • Displays Precipitation including:
    • Type
    • Intensity
    • Configuration
    • Coverage
    • Echo top
    • Cell movement
  • Severe Wx watches
  • H+35
radar summary chart symbology
Symbols

R: Rain

RW: Rain Shower

S: Snow

SW: Snow Shower

T: Thunderstorm

NE No Echoes/precipitation within the radar range

NA Radar data Not Available

OM Radar Out for Maintenance

Intensity

1: light

2: Moderate

3: heavy

4: Very heavy

5: Intense

6: Extreme

450 = max top 45,000ft MSL

LM = Little movement

WS999= severe thunderstorm watch 999

WT210 = Tornado watch # 210

Radar Summary Chart Symbology
radar summary chart48
Radar Summary Chart
  • Light Precipitation reported
  • Tops are at 22,000 MSL
  • Cell is moving Northeast at

24kts

  • Snow
significant wx prog
Significant WX Prog
  • Forecasts of selected Wx conditions
  • Various Forecast periods and Altitudes
  • Low Level and High level
    • Low level
      • Day 1 forecast
      • Issued 2 X daily
    • High lvl
      • 24,000 – 60,000ft
      • Divided into sections
      • 4 x day
convective outlook chart
Convective Outlook Chart
  • Describe areas in which there is a slight, moderate or high risk of severe TS or general TS
    • Winds 50 kts+
    • Hail greater/equal to ¾ diameter
    • Tornadoes
  • Day 1
    • First 24 hours
    • 5 x daily
    • Valid until next day at 12Z
  • Day 2
    • Next 24 hours
    • Every 12 hours
    • Valid until next day at 12z
atis awos
ATIS/AWOS
  • ATIS
    • Towered airports
    • Not automated
    • METAR/Airport information and NOTAMS
    • Hourly
  • AWOS
    • Automated Weather Observation System
    • suite of sensors, which measure, collect and disseminate weather data to help meteorologists, pilots and flight dispatchers prepare and monitor weather forecasts, plan flight routes, and provide necessary information for correct takeoffs and landings.
    • wind speed and direction, temperature and dew point, visibility, cloud heights and types, precipitation, and barometric pressure
    • Hourly
  • ASOS
    • Automated Surface Observation System
    • temperature, dew point, wind, altimeter setting, visibility, sky condition, and precipitation
    • Updates every minute
weather websites
Weather Websites
  • http://adds.aviationweather.noaa.gov/
  • www.aviationweather.com
  • www.wsi.com