Enlightenment Review • John Locke – contract theory of government and natural rights, wrote Essay on Human Understanding • Jean Jacques Rousseau – government formed by the consent of the people, separation of church and state, wrote The Social Contract • Baron de Montesquieu – three branches of government, checks and balances, wrote Spirit of the Laws • The Enlightenment was trying to pull people away from the church.
The Great Awakening • Renewed dependence on God • Revivals were started to spread pietism (individual’s devoutness and emotional union with God)
The Great Awakening • Was a religious response to the Enlightenment thinkers • Central idea – having an emotional experience that brings one closer to God
Great Awakening Key People • Jonathan Edwards – New England preacher and philosopher who tried to scare people into being “born again” • George Whitefield – Philadelphia minister who warned people not to listen to ministers that had not been “born again”
French and Indian War (1754-1763) • 1740s – the British and the French both wanted the Ohio River valley • George Washington led the troops for the British, had to surrender (22 years old)
French and Indian War • Albany Conference – the British urged the colonies to form an alliance with the Iroquois • Iroquois refused but stated that they would stay neutral • British would have one supreme commander in the colonies • Albany Plan of Union – wanted colonies to union to form a federal government (written by Benjamin Franklin); it was rejected
French and Indian War • 1755 - General Edward Braddock was the new British commander, Colonel George Washington was his aide • The British were ambushed by French and Native forces, Braddock was killed, and Washington stepped up
This would go one for 2 years in the frontier, and then it would spread to Europe • Became known as the SEVEN YEARS’ WAR • Eventually became Spain, France, some natives vs. Britain • Britain invaded Spain’s colonies of Cuba & the Philippines
Treaty of Paris (1763) • Formally ended the war • Eliminated French power in North America • New France and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River (except for New Orleans) was turned over to Britain • To get Cuba and the Philippines back, Spain would give Britain Florida
Review: Reasons for establishing the colonies • Religious freedom (King controlled church) • Escape poverty (unemployment) • Escape oppression (King too powerful) • Mercantilism (theory that government power depends on its wealth)
After the French and Indian War….. • The British were in debt from efforts to win the war and thought the colonies should have to pay for part of the war • WAS THAT FAIR?
Proclamation Act of 1763 • Colonists were beginning to try to establish land further into Native territory • Natives, led by Ottawa chief Pontiac, attacked colonial land and homes
King George did not want to pay for another war, especially over something that the colonies started • He issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 – drew a line North to South of the Appalachians and said that colonists could not settle west of the line without permission from the king • Where they happy about this?
Customs Duties • Customs duties were taxes on imports and exports • The British government thought that the colonists were not charging enough and were allowing too many smugglers through • The British government passes a law saying that smugglers would be sent to Nova Scotia (no jury, no common law) • Arrested for smuggling – John Hancock, who was represented in court by a young lawyer named John Adams
Sugar Act (1764) • Tax on sugar, molasses, silk, wine, coffee, etc. • The colonies said that it hurt trade • British government could also seize goods without due process
James Otis claimed that they should not be taxed if they had no representation in the British government • “No taxation without representation!”
Stamp Act (1765) • Tax on all printed materials (newspapers, pamphlets, posters, wills, mortgages, deeds, licenses, diplomas, dice, playing cards, etc.) • First tax to be direct straight at the colonies
Quartering Act (1765) • If you did not house troops in your home, you would have to pay their rent somewhere else
The Sons of Liberty participated in meetings and demonstrations against new taxes
Stamp Act Congress – organized boycotts of British goods • Britain repealed the Stamp Act (1 yr. later) after losing money • In it’s place, they passed the Declaratory Act – Parliament could make all laws for the colonies.
The Townshend Acts (1767) • Introduced by Charles Townshend • Main act: Revenue Act of 1767 – customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colonies
The Townshend Acts also legalized the writs of assistance – general search warrants that allowed officers to enter your home in search of smugglers
John Dickinson wrote Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer • Sam Adams and James Otis would start the “circular letter” saying that the money was being used to pay government salaries
Britain ordered the Massachusetts assembly to be dissolved • Boston, New York, and Philadelphia soon signed documents saying that they would no longer buy imports from Britain
Virginia’s House of Burgesses (led by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry) passed the Virginia Resolves saying that Virginia was the only people who could tax Virginians. • Britain ordered the House of Burgesses to be shut down • These men would form a convention and also boycott British goods
Boston Massacre (1770) • Colonists were throwing rocks and snowballs at British troops (led by Captain Thomas Preston) • Shots were fired, but the stories differed on who shot first and who said fire
5 would die and 6 were wounded • First person killed – an African/Native American named Crispus Attucks • WHO WAS TO BLAME?
The colonies remained pretty calm for the next two years after the Boston Massacre and the repeal of the Townshend Acts.
1772 – Gaspee affair – British ship that patrolled the North American border, would search ships without warrants/colonists seized and burned the ship • Jefferson set up the committee of correspondence to communicate with other colonies about what the British were doing; would unify the colonies
1773 – Lord North passed the Tea Act to help the British East India Company sell their tea. • With the help from the tax, the British tea could be sold at a lower price than the smuggled tea.
In late 1773, the British shipped tea to four major ports. The committee of correspondence spread to word to not let the tea reach land • New York & Pennsylvania – forced ships to return to Britain • Charleston – seized the tea and stored it in a warehouse
Boston – 150 men dressed as Indians and dumped 342 cases of tea in the Boston harbor • Thousands cheered from the dock
In response, Britain passed the Coercive Acts (1774) • Boston’s port would close until they paid for the tea • All officials in Massachusetts would be appointed by the King • Trials of British soldiers would be transferred to Britain • Town meetings banned • Colonist had to provide housing to the 2,000 troops coming in to keep order (Led by General Thomas Gage)
Quebec Act – king appointed leadership in Quebec and gave them more land (modern day Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin) • Together, these will called the INTOLERABLE ACTS
The First Continental Congress • Patrick Henry – called for war • 55 delegates (all colonies except Georgia), mostly split between war and compromise
Passed the Declaration of Rights and Grievances – declared loyalty to the king but boycotted British goods because of the Coercive Acts • Adjourned and would meet again in one year if there was still a problem with the British • Main: Patrick Henry, George Washington, John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Jay, John Dickinson
Redcoats – British soldiers • Minutemen – Concord men who would “stand at a minute’s warning in case of alarm”
Loyalists – Americans who backed the British (also known as Tories) • Patriots (or Whigs) – rebelled against the British
April 1775 – the British ordered General Thomas Gage to arrest the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, but he didn’t know where to find it. So he decided to seize the supply warehouse at Concord.
700 British troops headed to Concord along a road that passed a town called Lexington.
Paul Revere and William Dawes spread the word to Lexington – “The British are coming!” • After warning, the two men with Dr. Samuel Prescott, went to warn Concord. Revere and Dawes were stopped by the British, but Prescott got through.
When they reached Lexington, the British were met by 70 minutemen. The minutemen were ordered to disperse and were actually leaving when a single shot was fired. The British fired back killing 8 and wounding 10 minutemen. • BRITISH VICTORY
Then the British headed to Concord, they ran into 400 colonial soldiers and retreated. They began heading back to Boston but the colonial militia began firing from behind trees and houses. The militia would surround the British and trap them in Boston. • AMERICAN VICTORY
Colonial Death Toll British Death Toll • Dead – 94 • Wounded - 213 • Dead – 273 • Wounded – 174
2nd Continental Congress • Decided to “adopt” the militia that had the British surrounded and name it the Continental Army • General and Commander in Chief = George Washington