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Theme 2.1 Improved crops for sustainable supply. Gail Taylor. Current Research Topics. Genomics and genetics of feedstock yield and lignocellulosic quality Woody biomass supply in a changing environment LCA and sustainability criteria for bioenergy and biofuels.

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Theme 2 1 improved crops for sustainable supply

Theme 2.1

Improved crops for sustainable supply

Gail Taylor


Current research topics
Current Research Topics

  • Genomics and genetics of feedstock yield and lignocellulosic quality

  • Woody biomass supply in a changing environment

  • LCA and sustainability criteria for bioenergy and biofuels


Theme 2 1 improved crops for sustainable supply

Estimated total amounts of C in soil & vegetation in different terrestrial

systems (Royal Society 2001). Pg C or Gt C

croplands 131 boreal forests 559

wetlands 240 temperate forests 159

tundra 127 tropical forests 428

deserts & semides. 199

temperate grasslands 304

tropical savannas 330

Total non forest 1,331 Total forests 1,146

Forest ecosystems – 50% global vegetation C


How can we improve efficiency of biomass production
How can we improve efficiency of biomass production? different terrestrial

4.6% 6.0%

Zhu et al., (2008). Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 153-159


Plant productivity monteith 1977
Plant Productivity- Monteith 1977 different terrestrial

Sugar beet (2.5%)

Biomass

Yield

T ha-1

Barley(2.5%)

Apple(2.5%)

Solar Radiation GJ m-2



Theme 2 1 improved crops for sustainable supply

Identifying genes important for high yield different terrestrial

cut

Harvest

Cut back

And harvest

Assessment

Assessment

Planted


Addressing the yield gap in energy poplar more biomass on less land
Addressing the yield gap in energy poplar – more biomass on less land

YIELD – ODT ha-1 y-1

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

40 ODT ha-1 y-1 [Nonhebel, 2002 ]

35 ODT ha-1 y-1 [Scarascia-Mugnozza et al., 1997]

Potential Yield

The yield

gap – high

throughput

biology can make

step-change

advances

20 ODT ha-1 y-1 [Corria et al., 1995]

18 ODT ha-1 y-1 [Rae et al., 2007]

18 ODT ha-1 y-1 [Labreque et al., 2005]

Actual commercial UK Yield

2-3 ODT ha-1 y-1 [Bungart et al., 1995]


Theme 2 1 improved crops for sustainable supply

P. nigra on less landfrom rivers across Europe



Leaf development candidates models
Leaf development candidates - models on less land

SAM CLAVATA1 CLAVATA2, CLAVATA3 WUSCHEL, PHANTASTICA, PHABULOSA, PHAVOLUTA, PINHEAD, YABBY, FIL, KANADI1, 2

Emerging primordia BOP1, AS1, AS2, ASL1, ANTEGUMENTA, ANGUSTIFOLIA, ROTUNDIFOLIA, GROWTH REGULATING FACTOR, CELL CYCLE CONTROL, ERECTA, ETHYLENE

Maturing lamina

EXPANSIN, XTHS, CYCLINS, CDKs, ENDOGLUCANASES, KORRIGAN, OXIDATIVE STATUS, WRKYs

Senescing

SAGs, LDOX, DFR, WRKYs, MYBs, SAG21

Abscission


Theme 2 1 improved crops for sustainable supply

LG chromosome on less land

4 QTL for ECN, ECA,

SI and SD (Rae et al., 2006; Rodriguez-Acosta et al, 2008)

E2Fc

cDNA array

up in large

down in large

Number of cells per leaf

Latitude


2 g crop improvement summary
2 G crop improvement – summary on less land

  • Elucidating genes underlying yield traits is nearing completion

  • We will move to proof of concept using transgenic trees

  • For commercial release marker assisted selection in the absence of GM