The expository text (or explanatory text): structures • Description, enumerative or listing • Sequence • Comparison and contrast • Cause and effect • Problem and solution
STRUCTURES • Description, enumerative or listing • includes listing connected information, outlining a series of steps, or placing ideas in a hierarchy
Structures • Sequence • when a series of events leads up to a conclusion, which means that these events are not a mere succession, rather they are organized
Structures • Comparison and contrast when you describe how two or more events, places, characters, or other ideas are similar and/or different in several ways
Structures • Cause and effect reasons why an event occurred, or several effects from one cause
Structures • Problem and solution this technique is used to identify the problem, give possible solutions with possible results, and present the solution that was chosen
Narrative texts • Narrative texts aim at entertaining, though they can also teach or inform, or even influence attitudes and social opinions (e.g. soap operas dealing with topical issues). The stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually be resolved.
Narrative texts 2 • Features • Characters with defined personalities/identities. • Dialogues (almost always, but not necessarily). • Descriptive language to create images in the reader's mind and enhance the story.
Narrative texts 3. Structure: • The focus of the text is on a series of actions: • Introduction • Complication • Resolution
Narrative texts 4. Language • Action verbs • Frequent use of past tense • Specific nouns • Active nouns (nominalizations) • Careful use of adjectives and adverbs; use of connectives • Use of rhetorical devices (metaphor,simile, personification, onomatopoeia)