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Dissimilarities in the Scholarly Domain. Blake Bartling Hanover College. Past Research / Findings. On average, athletes have higher GPA’s in-season than out-of season (Laughlin, 1978) Increased levels of time management result in an increased GPA (Misra, 2000)

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dissimilarities in the scholarly domain

Dissimilarities in the Scholarly Domain

Blake Bartling

Hanover College

past research findings
Past Research / Findings
  • On average, athletes have higher GPA’s in-season than out-of season (Laughlin, 1978)
  • Increased levels of time management result in an increased GPA (Misra, 2000)
  • Athletes with higher levels of self-esteem tended to perform better in the classroom (Schumaker, 1986)
research question
Research Question
  • Could the better time management and self-esteem of in-season athletes be mediators in their better in-season GPA?
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • 1) In-season athletes will have a higher mean GPA than out-of-season athletes
  • 2) In-season athletes will have greater self-esteem and time management behavior
  • 3) The greater in-season time management and self-esteem of athletes serve as mediators for the increase in GPA
participants
Participants

- Small Midwestern College

- 101 student athletes

  • 62 in-season athletes, and 39 out-of-season
  • 27 baseball, 15 softball, 11 men’s basketball, 9 women’s basketball, 7 men’s soccer, 10 women’s soccer, 7 volleyball, and 15 football

- 60 male and 41 female

- 97 participants were Caucasian, 2 were Asian, and 2 were African American

- 35 freshmen, 29 sophomores, 22 juniors, and 25 seniors

rosenberg self esteem scale rosenberg 1965
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale(Rosenberg, 1965)
  • 10 questions
  • Uses a 4-Point Likert Scale

- 1 = strongly agree to 4 = strongly disagree

  • α = .84

- sample question: On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.

time management survey bond 1983
Time Management Survey (Bond, 1983)
  • 16 questions
  • Uses a 5-Point Likert Scale

- 1 = Always to 5 = Never

  • α = .73

- sample question: I have trouble organizing the things I have to do.

demographic questions
Demographic Questions
  • These are a few demographic sample questions

- What was your GPA last semester?

- Are you a male or female? M F

- Name the sport you participate in

- What is your ethnicity?

- What class are you in?

  • There was a debriefing sheet attached to the back of the scales
procedure
Procedure
  • To gain subjects, coaches of the different sports were approach
  • The coach’s permission was obtained and the coaches distributed the scales and a demographic questionnaire
  • Coaches handed out packets at either a workout, practice, or team meeting
  • Coaches collected responses and returned them to the researcher
hypothesis 1 in vs out of season gpa s
Hypothesis 1: In vs. Out-of-Season GPA’s
  • t-test results: t (99) = -1.44, p = .15
hypothesis 2a in season vs out of season self esteem
Hypothesis 2a: In-season vs. Out-of-season Self-Esteem
  • t-tests results: t(99) = -0.6, p = .55
comparison of self esteem and gender
Comparison of Self-Esteem and Gender
  • t-test results: t(99) = - 3.8, p < .01
conclusions
Conclusions
  • There was not significantly different in GPA for in-season and out-of-season athletes
  • Difference in in-season and out-of-season time management behavior and self-esteem levels were not significantly different
  • As others have found, males have greater self-esteem than females
  • Self-esteem levels and time management behaviors are not related to GPA
discussion
Discussion
  • Student athletes at Division III schools are already held to a higher academic standard
  • Could be result of new academic standards for all athletes (Original finding: Laughlin, 1978)
  • Athletics are now a year round activity – out-of-season training
limitations
Limitations
  • This was a between-subject study
    • As a result this is a between sport study
    • But found no significant differences in GPA between sports
  • Lack of Division I and II schools
  • Many more male participants
  • Many more in-season participants
future directions
Future Directions
  • A study involving the differences in Division I, II, and III athletes’ GPA
  • Also examine each division’s in vs. out-of-season GPA
  • Focus on coach’s as well as teacher’s attitudes and influences on their athletes