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XVI. Events to Revolution. A. George II dies on Oct. 25, 1760 his son George III is king B. George Grenville was George III's minister 1. changed way England dealt with colonies 2. felt colonies should shoulder own responsibilities 3. The End of Salutary Neglect

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XVI. Events to Revolution


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xvi events to revolution
XVI. Events to Revolution

A. George II dies on Oct. 25, 1760 his son George III is king

B. George Grenville was George III's minister

1. changed way England dealt with colonies

2. felt colonies should shoulder own responsibilities

3. The End of Salutary Neglect

a. Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act)

i. cut tax on sugar in half

ii. added numerous items that could only go to England.

iii. strengthened vice-admiralty courts

iv. required Americans merchants to post bonds

v. smuggling very difficult

b. cries of protest all over

i. New York objected to taxation without representation

ii. other colonies picked up the chant years later.

c. Currency Act of 1764

i. forbade colonies from printing money

slide2

ii. depression increased and trade restricted even more

d. Stamp Act of 1765

i. required almost all printed material to have a stamp.

ii. small tax, effected many, inc. newspapers & printing

iii. already in effect in England

iv. England asked colonies for suggestions on taxing

v. after no suggestions stamp act started one year later

C. Parliament viewed as the enemy

1. colonial assemblies represented parliament

2. parliament inhibited the arbitrary rule of tyrants.

3. now threat coming from parliament

a. passing regulations

b. levying new taxes during a depression

c. felt England merchants making money on colonial goods

d. most felt taxes going to feed rich English aristocracy.

D. VA, House of Burgesses first official body to react to laws

1. several proposals raised objecting to taxes

2. some resolutions considered treasonous.

slide3

a. one claimed VA alone had the right to raise taxes in VA

b. other resolutions not passed circulated in local papers.

E. Massachusetts citizens protested in mob action

1. 8/1765 hung in effigy, stamp distributor, Andrew Oliver

2. Lt. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson, ordered sheriff to remove

3. crowd took effigy through streets in mock funeral

4. ended at Oliver's office destroyed it and his house

5. destroyed the homes of several other British officials

F. Other riots started in New York, and Rhode Island

1. "sons of liberty" formed to protest laws

2. Massachusetts assembly calls for a Stamp Act Congress

a. delegates accept Parliament's right to legislate

b. deny their right to tax colonies directly

3. resistance so strong most English stamp officials resign

4. Ports and Courts forced to continue despite lack of stamps

5. tax eventually ignored by most colonials

6. Parliament eventually revokes tax in March of 1766

a. as consolation put in Declaratory Act

b. stated they had right to impose any law on colonies

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G. England has social problems as well

1. England had high unemployment as well

2. England dependent on other nations for food supply

a. crops in Europe destroyed because of war

b. few crops for export

3. English government needed to supplement food supply

4. expected America to do her part

H. Parliament passed Townshend Act to replace Stamp tax

1. put tax on paper, lead, painters colors, and tea.

2. most colonists simply objected.

3. MA assembly sent a letter to each colony objecting

a. claimed tax supported English officials in colonies

4. Crown threatens to dissolve unless rescind letter

5. they refused and were dismissed

6. New York assembly buckled under Quartering Act

I. Boston center of resistance

1. 1768 Bostonians protested impounding of Hancock's ship

a. mob chased all customs officials on to British ships

b. four regiments reestablish their authority and release men

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2. In response colonists hold boycott of Townshend goods

a. merchants adopt nonimportation & nonconsumption pact

b. citizens took mob action to enforce pacts

c. boycott cost merchants over £700,000 tax raised £21,000

d. Parliament repealed tax on everything except tea.

3. The Boston Massacre (violence continued)

a. 3/ 5/1770 same night Parliament rescinded Townshend tax

b. Bostonians hazed small patrol of English soldiers

i. started throwing snowballs

ii. some had rocks in center

iii. soldiers felt threatened and shot into crowd

iv. 5 civilians killed (Boston Massacre)

v. soldiers acquitted in just trial

vi. John Adams and Josiah Quincy Jr. defended troops

4. 1772 crown tries to pay governor and superior court justices

a. object claiming it takes away the right to limit leaders

b. town meetings start complaining

c. call Committees of Correspondence

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5. 1773 Parliament tries to protect East India Company

a. allowed company to ship tea directly to colonies

b. got around English middle men & English import taxes

c. tea cheaper than the smuggled Dutch tea in colonies

d. Parliament felt Americans would be happy

e. Tea Act not received well by English or Americans

f. Americans had glut of Dutch tea

g. Colonies worried about a pattern of official concessions

h. believed it was a dirty trick to conceal another tax

6. Boston Tea Party

a. Samuel Adams led group

i. pressure merchants to return tea to England

ii. Governor Hutchinson refused to clear ships for return

b. Held meeting in Old South Church on Dec. 16, 1773

i. some men disguised as Indians

ii. boarded ships flung £10,000 tea in harbor

7. Parliament passed Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)

a. closed Boston Harbor until colony paid for tea

slide7

b. soldiers & officials given immunity from local courts

c. Parliament changes Massachusetts constitution

i. upper house appointed by Gov. not by lower house

d. Governor give power to stop all town meetings

i. except annual election meeting

e. Gen. Thomas Gage replaced Gov. Thomas Hutchinson

8. Boston town meeting called for letters to other colonies

a. Asked others to boycott English goods.

b. called for colonial delegates to Philadelphia meeting

J. First Continental Congress September of 1774

1. debated issues discussed by individual colonies before

2. every colony except Georgia represented

3. radical in north and conservatives in the south

4. write a declaration of American rights

a. on "immutable laws of nature“ & common law

b. Boycott England if Acts not rescinded 12/ 1/ 1774

5. Congress agreed to meet again in May of 1775

xix acts of treason
XIX. Acts of Treason

A. after Congress delegates start taking action

1. form alternate governments

2. by 1774 all but 3 colonies have alternate governments

3. by end of 1775 almost all trade with England stopped

B. April 1775 England started violence.

1. Crown felt most resistance centered in Massachusetts

2. asked General Gage to arrest principles.

3. sent 700 soldiers to Concord by night to siege ammunition

a. stored by Provincial Congress

b. traveled across Back Bay in boats

c. sexton hangs 2 lanterns in Boston’s Christ Church

d. signaled riders to warn minutemen

i. ready at a minute's warning

e. 70 minutemen met English in Lexington at dawn

i. 8 Americans dead and 10 wounded

f. British temporarily delayed and continued

g. Concord

slide9

i. 3 companies looked for arms

ii. burn arms rather than transport

iii. retreated back to Boston

iv. rebels fired on soldiers from hiding

v. 273 British killed only 95 Americans died.

C. Second Continental Congress met in May 1775

1. made moves to secure Native American neutrality

2. issued paper money

3. set up a postal system

4. authorized a continental army of 20,000 men

5. chose George Washington as commander and chief

6. declared reasons for taking up arms

7. sent king "Olive Branch Petition"

a. begging him to remove obstacles to reconciliation

b. claimed parliament and advisors were guilty

D. Violence Escalates

1. Ethan Allen’s Green Mountain boys of New York

a. captured Fort Ticonderoga & Champlain Valley

slide10

2. King rejects Olive Branch sent 20,000 troops

3. Nov. 1775 Virginia's Lord Dunmore took action

a. offered freedom to slaves who joined British

b. frustrated, shelled Norfolk, Virginia on 1/1/1776

4. March 1776, Washington force British to evacuate Boston

E. Congress continued to debate

1. Americans tried to take Quebec but failed

2. England took steps

a. embargoed all trade to the colonies

b. ordered all the seizure of all American ships

4. Congress declared all ports open to any country

a. hoping to run blockade

5. Congressional committee drafts document of independence

a. Declaration of Independence finished June 28

b. 12 colonies agreed to resolution July 2, 1776