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Watercolor. Carty Visual Art I 2013. Terms. Transparent: can be seen through- allows the penetration of light Opaque: cannot be seen through- prohibits the penetration of light. Terms continued. Charged Brush: brush is holding full capacity of paint- strokes look juicy

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watercolor

Watercolor

Carty Visual Art I 2013

terms
Terms
  • Transparent: can be seen through- allows the penetration of light
  • Opaque: cannot be seen through- prohibits the penetration of light
terms continued
Terms continued
  • Charged Brush: brush is holding full capacity of paint- strokes look juicy
  • Dry Brush: brush has been wiped repeatedly leaving only small amount of paint- strokes look streaked and dry
techniques
Techniques
  • Wet-on-wet: wet paper, charged brush
  • Wet-on-dry: dry paper, charged brush
  • Dry-on-wet: wet paper, dry brush
  • Dry-on-dry: dry paper, dry brush
resists
Resists
  • Resists are used to preserve the white of the paper- they are substances which resist the paint and cause it to not adhere to the painting surface
types of resists
Types of Resists
  • Wax paper
  • Parafin
  • White wax crayon or candle
  • Masking tape
  • Rubber cement
  • Maskoid or other commercial resist product
types and shapes of brushes
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Flat: bristle, hair, or nylon
    • Flat end (chisel point)
    • Long belly
    • Flay ferrule
types and shapes of brushes1
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Bright
    • Flat end
    • Short belly
    • Flat ferrule
types and shapes of brushes2
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Filberts: bristle
    • Oval point
    • Flat ferrule
types and shapes of brushes3
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Oval wash (mop): hair
    • Oval point
    • Flattened ferrule
types and shapes of brushes4
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Rounds: bristle, hair, nylon
    • Pointed tip
    • Round ferrule
types and shapes of brushes5
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Fan blenders: bristle (and hair)
    • Fan shaped
    • Rounded, flattened heel on ferrule
types and shapes of brushes6
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Hake: Japanese wash brush, soft hair
    • Slightly fanned
    • Stitching to hold hair
    • No ferrule
types and shapes of brushes7
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Lettering brush
    • Flat point
    • Very long hair
types and shapes of brushes8
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Dagger: (bristle), hair
    • Dagger or sword type point
    • Very long hair
    • Round ferrule
types and shapes of brushes9
Types and Shapes of Brushes
  • Hardware utility brush: bristle or nylon (large washes)
    • Flat
    • Short handle
composition of brushes
Composition of Brushes
  • Bristle: stiff, hog’s hair, “boar”
  • Nylon: plastic, synthetic
  • Hair
    • Red sable: the best, actually made from hair of the Kolinsky or Tartar Martin from Siberia
    • Sabeline: dyed ox hair
    • Camel: squirrel hair
sizes of brushes
Sizes of Brushes
  • Round Brushes- “0000” smallest, 12 is usually largest available
  • Flats and Brights- ¼ smallest, 1 usually largest (occasionally up to 2)
paper
Paper
  • Basic Composition
    • Rag: ph balanced, long lasting, highest quality, often hand made
    • Sulfite: wood pulp, non ph balance leading to decomposition, yellowing, brittleness, much less expensive, machine made
weight of paper
Weight of Paper
  • Determined by “ream weight” or weight of 500 sheets of that paper in standard size
    • Ex. 350 lb. paper means that 500 sheets of that paper weigh 350 lbs
    • Standard weighs run 80 to 400 pounds
    • In watercolor, it is considered best to stretch all but heaviest papers of the aquarium papers
    • Paper is sized with glue which is usually removed by moistening when watercolor painting. Blotters are made from unsized paper
special effects
Special Effects
  • Salt- sprinkled into wet paint causing granulated, textured, starburst effect
special effects1
Special Effects
  • Sponges (natural are preferable)- can be used to lift or add color, create textured effects
special effects2
Special Effects
  • Tissue paper- used to lift color
special effects3
Special Effects
  • Razors, knife blades- used to pick out of lift small areas of color, or scratch out white lines
special effects4
Special Effects
  • Sticks, pallete knives etc.- used to apply paint of texture
special effects5
Special Effects
  • Splatter effects- using stiff tooth brush or atomizer
watercolor paints
Watercolor Paints
  • Types
    • Pan colors: pigments are often inferior, less intense (just dyes)
    • Tube colors: preferable, more versatile, more intense, more permanent
watercolor paints1
Watercolor Paints
  • Composition: pigment + gum arabic + (glycerin) + water
    • Gum arabic is the binder
    • Pigment is the colorant
watercolor paints2
Watercolor Paints
  • Pigment Sources
    • Inorganic
      • Synthetic mineral- chemical
      • Natural mineral- “earth colors”
    • Organic
      • Animal
      • Vegetable
      • Synthetic organic colors
watercolor paints3
Watercolor Paints
  • Pigment Types
    • Opaque
    • Transparent
    • Staining (light)
    • Non-staining (heavy)
granulation theory of watercolor
Granulation Theory of Watercolor
  • Stain: fine particles, sink slowly because they are light enough to stay suspended or float- they spread or diffuse- they will penetrate into pores of paper- create permanent stain
    • Ex. Thalo Colors
granulation theory of watercolor1
Granulation Theory of Watercolor
  • Semi-Staining: go down less slowly- particles are less fine so they do not penetrate as rapidly into pores of paper
granulation theory of watercolor2
Granulation Theory of Watercolor
  • Non-Staining: particles are heavy and sink faster because they are larger they do not penetrate pores of paper
granulation theory of watercolor3
Granulation Theory of Watercolor
  • Granulation is created by a combination of thick (heavy) with a thin (light) Pigment
    • Light pigment will diffuse on the damp paper creating a “halo” stain around the heavier pigment
    • Pigments separate on the paper and to not stay well-blended
  • Ex. Thalo Blue and Burnt Sienna, or Thalo Green and Vermillion
transparent pigments
Transparent Pigments
  • Stains Light Pigments
    • Sap green
    • Brown madder
    • Rosemadder
    • Alizarin crimson
    • New gamboge yellow
    • Sepia
  • Semi-Stains Heavy Pigments
    • Hooker’s green(light and dark values)
    • Anthwerp blue
    • Payne’s Gray
    • Aureolin yellow
    • Lemon yellow
    • Yellow ochre
    • Burnt Sienna
opaque pigments
Opaque Pigments
  • Semi-Staining Light Pigments
    • Cadmium red
    • Cadmium orange
    • Cadmium yellow
    • Raw sienna
    • Naples yellow
    • Indian red
    • Windsor emerald
    • Cadmium scarlet
  • Non-staining Heavy Pigments
    • Vermillion
    • Manganese blue
    • Ultramarine blue
    • Cobalt blue
    • Cerulin blue
    • Chromium oxide green
    • Chinese white
    • Ivory black
what not to do
What not to do…
  • Muddy colors- created by mixing or over-layering heavy opaque colors
  • Balloons- hard edges created by uneven drying (use a hairdryer!)
  • Overworking
additional information
Additional Information
  • Glazing- applying a wash over dry paint
  • Different meanings of “pallette”
    • Surface used for mixing paint
    • The selection of colors used in a painting
    • The selection of colors generally used by an artist in his or her work
  • Paint the essential, paint broadly, paint details last
sequences of painting
Sequences of Painting
  • Three approaches to establishing a composition
    • Paint center of interest first, progress to least important last (difficult to do in watercolor)
    • Dark to Light: lay in darks first to achieve unity quickly, dangerous but effective
    • Light to Dark: lay in light values first, progress to darkest last, a safe conventional approach