East Carolina UniversityFire and Life Safety TrainingResidence Halls Office of Environmental Health and Safety East Carolina University
Top Causes of Dormitory Fires Incendiary/Suspicious 33% Cooking 21% Smoking 14% Source: U.S. Fire Administration, 2001
Objectives • General Information • Emergency Evacuation Plans • Notification Systems • Emergency Exits and Fire Doors • Electrical Safety • Fire Prevention • Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers • Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers • Regulatory Requirements, OSHA & NFPA
Fire in the United States • The U.S. has one of the highest fire death rates in the industrialized world. For 1997, the U.S. fire death rate was 15.2 deaths per million population. • Between 1993 and 1997, an average of 4,500 Americans lost their lives and another 26,500 were injured annually as the result of fire. • Fire is the third leading cause of accidental death in the home; at least 80 percent of all fire deaths occur in residences. • Direct property loss due to fires is estimated at $8.5 billion annually.
Where Fires Occur • 1,795,000 fires in the United States in 1997. Of these: 40% were Outside Fires 31% were Structure Fires 22% were Vehicle Fires 7 % were fires of other types • Fires in the home most often start in the: Kitchen 29% Bedroom 13% Living Room 7% Chimney 5% Laundry Area 4%
How Does a Fire Work? • Three components • Need all three components to start a fire • Fire extinguishers remove one or more of the components • Oxygen is required as a catalyst – may come from the air OR from the fuel itself
ECU’S Policy On Fire is to EVACUATE Regardless of the internal policies that may have been in place previously, current University policy is to evacuate the area where a fire occurs regardless of the amount or cost of equipment that may be lost. “DO NOT GO BACK INTO THE BUILDING FOR ANYTHING, NOT EVEN TO ATTEMPT A RESCUE”.
Fire There Is AWhat Do I Do? • Upon discovering a fire, immediately sound the building fire alarm and/or alert other occupants. Only properly trained emergency response personnel should assist with the evacuation of mobility-impaired individuals. • From outside of the building dial 911. • Provide your name, which residence hall you are in, and the location of the fire.
FIRE! • When you evacuate, do not stop for personal belongings. Leave immediately using the nearest exit. Do not use the elevators. • Evacuate to the designated meeting location for the building and out of the way of emergency personnel.
Emergency Evacuation Plans Emergency Evacuation Plans forall Residence Halls must be updated annually. This plan must cover the approved primary and secondary meeting locations, the notification method, any unique procedures for that specific building, and designate a Safety Representative and Alternative Safety Representative.
Training • All staff and residents must be trained on emergency evacuation plans and participate in scheduled drills.
Notification Methods All residence halls must have an alarm system to warn occupants. This may include one or more of the following: • Voice – yell for help/fire/Code Red. • Public Address system (PA) • Alarm Pull Stations
Alarm Systems An alarm system of one kind or the other must be in place to notify the residents in areas where the fire itself may not provide adequate warning. The clear protective covers on pull handles do not activate the alarm, the handle must actually be pulled.
RACE Method of Evacuation • R Remove all persons in danger! • A Always pull the alarm and call ECU Police Department. • C Contain the fire by closing the windows and doors. • E Extinguish the fire only if you are trained and confident.
Means of Egress • A continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from a building or structure. • Egress must be unobstructed and unlocked while the structure is occupied.
Exits • Exit access must be clearly indicated so residents know the direction of escape. • Artificial illumination must have backup.
Exits • All exits must be clearly visible – no mirrors, curtains, or other camouflage. • All exits must be clearly illuminated with at least 5 candlepower. • Doors which may be mistaken as exits must be clearly labeled as “Not an Exit”.
Fire Doors • Required fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall be maintained in good working order. • Fire Door assemblies shall not be modified. • Door stops, wedges and other unapproved hold-open devices are prohibited on fire doors. • Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and shall latch automatically.
Fire Doors • Door stops, wedges and other unapproved hold-open devices are prohibited on fire doors • Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and shall latch automatically NO!!!
Building Evacuation • Proceed to nearest exit in an orderly fashion. • Assemble at least 100 feet from the building. • Provide emergency crews with information about people still in the building. • Never re-enter a building until instructed to by the police department, fire department, or EH&S staff.
Precautions Against Fire • Clearance of not less than 36 inches shall be provide between all electrical service equipment and storage. • Multiplug adaptors, such as cube adaptors, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with NFPA 70 is prohibited.
Electrical Safety • Surge Protectors are the only approved means of multiplying a receptacle. • All appliances must have a UL label.
Electrical Safety • Extension cords and flexible cords cannot be a substitute for permanent wiring and prohibited in residence halls. • These cords cannot be nailed, stapled, run under carpet, wrapped around furniture, run across the ceiling, or attached to any surface by any other creative means. • All cords should be in good condition.
Open Flames • Open flames are not allowed in ECU residence halls. • Candles and burning incense are not permitted in student rooms.
Incipient Stage Fires Fires in the initial or beginning stage and can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus.
Classification of Fires & Extinguishers Class A Fires • Wood • Paper • Rags • Some rubber and plastic materials
Classification of Fires & Extinguishers Class B Fires • Gasoline • Oil • Grease • Paint • Flammable Gases • Some rubber and plastic materials
Classification of Fires & Extinguishers Class C Fires • Electrical Fires • Office Equipment • Motors • Switchgear • Heaters
Classification of Fires & Extinguishers Class D Fires • Metals • Magnesium • Titanium • Sodium • Zirconium • Potassium • Lithium
Portable Fire Extinguisher Safety You are not expected to befirefighters!
Portable Fire Extinguishers • Locate and identify extinguishers so that they are readily accessible. • Only approved extinguishers shall be used. • Maintain extinguishers in a fully charged and operable condition.
Portable Fire Extinguishers Selection and Distribution • Based on Classes of anticipated residence hall fires • Based on size and degree of hazard
NOT for Electrical Equipment fires Multi-Class Ratings • There are several types of multi-class extinguishers: A-B, B-C, or A-B-C. • Be sure the correct extinguisher is provided for the hazards.
Different Kinds of Extinguishers The 4 most common fire extinguishers: • All Purpose Water • Carbon Dioxide • Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical • Dry Powder Each kind of extinguisher has a specific use.
Halon/Halonite FM200 Dry Chemical Water Carbon Dioxide
All Purpose Water • Use on CLASS A fires • Pressurized water • Pressure gauge present
Carbon Dioxide • Use on CLASS B and CLASS C fires • Caution! Skin can freeze to the discharge horn during use. • No pressure gauge
Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical • Use on CLASS A, CLASS B, and CLASS C fires • Fine powder under pressure • Pressure gauge present
How to Use an Extinguisher P A S S P:Pull the pin. A:Aim extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flame. S:Squeeze trigger while holding the extinguisher upright. S:Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering the area with the extinguishing agent.