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Physical Development of Early Childhood. Psychology 333 Child Development Dennis H. Karpowitz, Ph.D. Time Period. Ages two to six Preschool Kindergarten First Grade. Changes in Body Size and Proportions. 2-3 inches in height per year About 5 pounds per year Posture & balance improve

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physical development of early childhood
Physical Development ofEarly Childhood
  • Psychology 333
  • Child DevelopmentDennis H. Karpowitz, Ph.D.
time period
Time Period
  • Ages two to six
  • Preschool
  • Kindergarten
  • First Grade
changes in body size and proportions
Changes in Body Sizeand Proportions
  • 2-3 inches in height per year
  • About 5 pounds per year
  • Posture & balance improve
  • Individual differences increase
skeletal growth
Skeletal Growth
  • 45 epiphyses - Cartilage to bone
  • Skeletal age determined by x-ray
    • Best measure of physical maturity
  • By 5 primary teeth start to come in
  • Care of teeth
    • Poor among the disadvantaged
    • Excellent in the middle class
asynchronous physical growth
Asynchronous Physical Growth
  • General growth curve:
  • Rapid in infancy
  • Slow in early childhood
  • Slow in middle childhood
  • Rapid in adolescence
brain synaptic growth and pruning
Brain: Synaptic Growthand Pruning
  • Brain metabolism peak @ 4 years of age
    • Accounts for plasticity of the child brain
  • Synaptic pruning
    • Infrequently stimulated neurons loosetheir connective fibers
    • Rapid bursts of synaptic growth
    • High rates of cell death
  • Plasticity reduced by 10 years of ageto near adult levels.
brain lateralization
Brain lateralization
  • Hemispheres develop at diff. Rates
    • Specialization
  • Left Hemisphere:
    • Dramatic activity between 3 & 6
  • Right Hemisphere:
    • Slow increases between 3 & 6
    • Slight spurt between 8 & 10
handedness
Handedness
  • By age 2 handedness is fairly stable
  • Dominant cerebral hemisphere
    • Responsible for skilled motor action
  • Right handedness = Dominant LEFThemisphere.
handedness cont
Handedness Cont.
  • Left handedness - Motor and language skill shared between hemispheres.
    • Less strongly lateralized
    • More likely to be ambidextrous
    • Outstanding verbal & mathematical skills
  • Most fetuses lie turned toward the leftin the uterus - this may promote greaterpostural control by the right side ofthe body.
other brain advances
Other brain advances
  • Cerebellum
    • Controls balance & body movement
    • Myelinization not complete until 4
  • Reticular formation
    • Maintains alertness & consciousness
    • Myelinates throughout early childhood,middle childhood and adolescence
  • Corpus callosum
    • Myelinization doest not begin until year 2.
hormones pituitary gland
Hormones - Pituitary gland
  • Growth hormone (GH)
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Stimulates the release of thyroxinenecessary for growth & brain develop.
emotional well being
Emotional Well-Being
  • Stressful home
    • Respiratory illnesses
    • Intestinal illnesses
    • Unintentional injuries
    • Deprivation dwarfism
sleep
Sleep
  • GH released during sleeping hours
  • 12-13 hours for ages 2 to 3
  • 10 to 11 hours for ages 4 to 6
  • Nightmares common between 3 & 6
  • 15% children have sleep problems
nutrition
Nutrition
  • Appetites decrease due to slower growth
  • Picky eaters
  • Need a high-quality diet
  • Iron, calcium, Vitamins C & A impt.
  • Disadvantaged children 1 inch shorterby age seven.
infectious diseases
Infectious Diseases
  • Malnutrition
  • Immunizations
  • Day care & middle ear infections
childhood injuries
Childhood Injuries
  • Auto accidents, drowning, burns
  • Complex ecological system
  • Higher activity levels
  • Irritability, inattentivenessand negative mood
  • Poverty & low parent education
  • US highest in childhood injuriesamong industrialized nations.
motor development
Motor Development
  • Gross motor development
    • Balance improves
    • Runs, jumps, hops, throws and catches, skips
  • Fine motor development
    • Self-help skills
    • Drawing and writing
  • Body build influences
  • Enhancing motor development.
perceptual development
Perceptual Development
  • Differentiation theory
    • What is the same?
    • What is unique?
  • Reading to the child is important
    • The child will take an increasing active role.
  • .
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