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Infection Control

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  1. Infection Control

  2. Federal Agencies • Infectious Disease Process & Immunity • Aseptic Practices • Personal Protective Equipment • Terminology & Pathogen Transmission • Occupational Risk Factors • Diseases of Concern-HIV/AIDS • Disease of Concern-Hepatitis, Meningitis, Tuberculosis • Diseases of Concern-Chickenpox, Measles, Mumps, Herpes

  3. Federal Agencies • CDC-Centers for Disease Control • Division of Dept. of Health and Human Services • Governmental agency-employs over 8,600 • Main location Atlanta, GA • Purpose-to safeguard public health by preventing and controlling disease • Seeks to finds causes of diseases, find cures, alert medical professionals • Recommends appropriate treatment • Conducts research • Develops immunization services w/ state and local agencies • Sets standards for healthful working conditions

  4. CDC-Continued • Issued new isolation guidelines • 2 tiered approach • 1st tier-(most important tier)-contains precautions designed to care for all patients in healthcare setting • Contain precautions to decrease risk of transmission of disease through body fluids and known as STANDARD PRECAUTIONS • Used regardless of patients dx/ or known infection

  5. CDC-Continued STANDARD PRECAUTIONS-apply to • Blood • All body fluids (except sweat) • Blood, any body fluid containing blood, tissue specimens, semen, vaginal secretions, amniotic fluid, cerebral spinal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, interstitial fluid, feces, nasal secretions, sputum, tears, urine, vomitus, saliva, breast milk that contains blood • Non-intact skin • Mucous membranes

  6. CDC-Continued STANDARD PRECAUTIONS • promote hand hygiene • Use of personal protective equipment-cloves, mask, gown, protective eyewear • 2nd tier-focuses on patients who are either suspected of having an infectious disease or already infected • Uses extra precautions • 3 categories • Airborne precautions-need isolation/private room/mask • Droplet precautions-mask worn only if within 3 feet of pt. • Contact Precautions-transmission by touch

  7. Federal Agencies OSHA-Occupational Safety and Health Administration • Responsible for the safety of all employees in companies operating in the US. • Concerned with any workplace hazards • Enforces CDC guidelines

  8. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity The presence of a pathogenic organism, or microorganism, is not enough to cause an infection Several other factors must be in place for infection to occur Known as the chain of infection

  9. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Oxygen-aerobic (require O2) and anaerobic (survive w/o O2) Temperature-bacteria thrive at body temperature 107degrees and ^ will kill most Light-bacteria usually die if exposed to direct sunlight • Prefer darkness Moisture-grow best in moist areas • Skin • Mucous membranes • Wet dressings • Wounds • Dirty instruments

  10. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity

  11. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Chain of infection 1-Infectious agent/reservoir host 2-Portal of exit-resp., intestinal, urinary, wound, reproductive tract 3-Means of transmission-direct or indirect contact, foods, insects (VECTORS), air droplets 4-Means of entrance-means by which the pathogen enters the body (resp, GI, urinary, reproductive, blood, skin, mucous membranes 5-Susceptible host-poor health, poor hygiene, stress, disease

  12. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity • Direct Contact-touching the bacteria, or infected person • Indirect Contact-air droplets from a cough, touching a contaminated object, eating contaminated food, or insects

  13. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Prevention-human body has several natural barriers • Skin, mucous membranes, GI tract, lymph and circulatory systems • Intact skin-best barrier • GI tract-HCl causes destruction of disease-producing bacteria

  14. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Lymphatic system & Blood system produce antibodies that protect the body from disease • leucocytes (WBC’s)-fight pathogenic microorganisms by phagocytosis • Phagocytes-engulf and destroy pathogens • Lymphocytes-produce antibodies during the antigen-antibody reaction

  15. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Antigen-Antibody Reaction • Antibodies-react in response to an antigen(foreign substances) • Body has natural protection called immunity • Immunity-occurs when enough antibodies have been produced to provide protection • Immunity can be genetic or acquired (active or passive)

  16. Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Immunity can be genetic or acquired (active or passive) • Active • Active acquired natural-antibodies/recovering from disease(measles) • Active acquired artificial-vaccination w/ dead organism (flu) • Passive • Passive acquired natural-acquired form someone else’s antibodies-breast milk or placenta • Passive acquired artificial-temporary-gamma globulin/tetanus shot

  17. Aseptic Practices Terms to know: Nosocomial-hospital/medical facility-acquired infection Medical asepsis-destruction of organisms after they leave the body-(ex. handwashing) Surgical asepsis-techniques used to maintain a sterile environment Hand hygiene-first defense against the spread of disease

  18. Aseptic Practices • Antisepsis-inhibits or inactivates pathogens by means of careful scrubbing of equipment-cleans items but virus, sporesnot destroyed (ONLY CLEANS) • Disinfection-soaking and wiping process, Destroys pathogenic organisms but…does not kill spores(KILLS GERMS) • Sterilization-destruction of all microorganisms (KILLS EVERYTHING) • autoclave

  19. Personal Protective Equipment • PPE-equipment issued to the employee to be used while caring for a patient to reduce the risk of exposure to an infectious agent • Gloves, mask, gowns, eyewear

  20. Personal Protective Equipment Gloves- • an effective barrier against exposure to bloodborne pathogens • Change gloves- as soon as practical when contaminated, or if torn, punctured, or lose their barrier function

  21. Personal Protective Equipment Eyewear • Bacteria can enter through the mucous membranes of the eyes • Goggles should fit over your glasses • Use face shield if any chance of splashing

  22. Personal Protective Equipment Face mask- • Used for many purposes • Two way protection-you and the patient • Simple face mask not adequate to protect against some sir borne diseases-TB-need a special mask to filter out the particles • HEPA respirator mask-remove 95-99% of the particles • Mask is specifically fit for each person

  23. Personal Protective Equipment Gowns • Worn whenever there is a risk for contamination of clothing • Simple, disposable gowns usually adequate • Use only once then discard

  24. Pathogen Transmission • Disease TRANSMISSION-the transfer of a disease from one person to another or from an animal to other to a person. Several criteria must be present- • 1-diease must be contagious • 2-must have a means of transmission • 3-must have a way into the body • 4-disease must be considered infectious or capable of invading the body and causing damage to cells and tissues • 5-individual must be susceptible to the organism • 6-exposed versus infected-remember-infected means that the organism has entered and invaded and multiplied in the body

  25. Pathogen Transmission Routes of transmission • Airborne/droplet transmission • Direct Contact transmission • Indirect Contact transmission • Vector transmission

  26. Pathogen Transmission Airborne Transmission- • organisms transmitted through the air • can be attached to a particle of dust or droplet of moisture in the air • Sneezing/coughing-URI

  27. Pathogen Transmission Direct Contact-straight from person to person • Kissing • Sexual contact • Exposure to blood or feces (example-a patients’ blood dripping into an open wound or eyes of the healthcare provider; eating after your hands are soiled w/ pt’s feces)

  28. Pathogen Transmission Indirect Contact- • touching surfaces that have been contaminated w/ the pathogen/bacteria • using food utensils, cups that were used by an infected person • Swimming in water that contains bacteria (e-coli)

  29. Pathogen Transmission Vector-borne-transmitted from one host or source to another by a “common carrier”, animal, insect • Rocky Mtn. spotted fever • Lyme disease • Malaria