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J. Maassen. CINMS. California’s Gold: Using ecological and collaborative research to inform fisheries management strategies for the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Sarah Teck, Sarah Rathbone, Nick Shears, Rebecca Toseland, Scott Hamilton, Jenn Caselle and Steve Gaines.

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slide1
J. Maassen

CINMS

California’s Gold: Using ecological and collaborative research to inform fisheries management strategies for the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanusSarah Teck, Sarah Rathbone, Nick Shears, Rebecca Toseland, Scott Hamilton, Jenn Caselle and Steve Gaines

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, [email protected]

california s gold
California’s Gold

incabrain.com

San Francisco

Santa Barbara

~34°N

~120°W

Santa Barbara

San Miguel

Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa

Channel Islands

Anacapa

25 km

california s gold1
California’s Gold

(5th largest fishery)

~66% is harvested from here

incabrain.com

  • ~52% is landed here

Santa Barbara

San Miguel

Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa

Anacapa

25 km

slide7
89 mm N CA; seasonal limit # days per week

76 min size limit

Moratorium on permits

83 mm S CA; seasonal limit # days per week

El Niño

↓ Japanese economy

↑ market competition

El Niño

El Niño

Data: CDF&G

slide8
89 mm N CA; seasonal limit # days per week

76 min size limit

Moratorium on permits

83 mm S CA; seasonal limit # days per week

El Niño

↓ Japanese economy

↑ market competition

El Niño

El Niño

Data: CDF&G

motivation
Motivation
  • Status of the stock unknown
  • Collect baseline information — precautionary approach
  • Integrate ecological, economic, and fisheries data to improve management
  • Can yields or profits increase with different management?
quality not just quantity and size
Quality, not just quantity and size
  • fished species:
    • population size
    • individual size
  • urchins:
    • gonad quality
      • time (seasons)
      • space (islands)

Objective: temporal and spatial variability of gonad quality  fisheries management

steep temperature gradient
Steep temperature gradient

(Blanchette et al 2007)

slide12
Steep biotic gradient

S. purpuratus

  • Sites deforested by purple urchins~33-87% of the time

(Shears in prep, National Park Service-Kelp Forest Monitoring data 1985-2007)

2007 purple abundance

COMPETITOR

Macrocystis pyrifera

RESOURCE

by Scott Gietler

slide13
>400 boats surveyed

Dec 2008-present

Port sampling

location, effort, landings, GSI, price…

Objective: temporal and spatial variability of gonad quality  fisheries management

slide17
no diff. AMONG ISLANDS:
  • (1) mean (2) phase shift (3) period
slide18
Amplitude of SCI differs

P=0.0250 *

P=0.0016 **

why does amplitude vary spatially
Why does amplitude vary spatially?
  • Gonad quality is governed by physiological response to environment and ecology
    • Temperature
      • higher metabolism in warmer water

 faster somatic growth?

    • Food quality and availability
      • less kelp in warmer water and with competitors (purples)

 less allocation to reproduction?

fishery implications
Fishery implications
  • Optimal profits to harvest
    • SMI/SRI before reproduce (high productivity here)
    • SCI after reproduce (lower productivity here)
next steps
Next steps…
  • Examine fishermen behavior—are they fishing optimally? (landing receipt data)
  • Bioeconomic model—How will urchin populations and fishery profits respond to various management regimes?
    • ex: Seasonal quota (TAC) or effort ; property rights (TURFs)
    • Optimal harvest strategy over time and space
    • Feasible harvest strategy within this fishery
slide22
THANKS TO…
  • Commercial Fishermen of Santa Barbara: urchin divers, H. Liquornik, S. Mutz
  • Lab assistants: M. Adams, A. Alger, G. Alongi, K. Asanion, M. Bogeberg, E. Casas, D. Cooper, M. Hunt, S. Meinhold, W. Meinhold, A. Poppenwimer, J. Roh, R. Shen, T. Shultz, A. Stroud, K. Treiberg, O. Turnross, A. Wong,
  • PISCO dive team: K. Davis, A. Parsons-Field, E. Nickisch, J. Benson, P. Carlson, L. Hesla, E. Hessell, C. Lantz, JA Macfarlan, C. Pierre, D. Salazar, B. Selden, A. Soccodato, N. Spindel, S. Windell,
  • EEMB/Bren: Gaines lab, Lenihan lab
  • J. Lorda, L. Pecquerie, H. Salgado, B. Broitman
management challenge
Management challenge

gonad

quality

time

peak quality

trough quality

harvesting in different areas
Harvesting in different areas

Reef 1

gonad

quality

Reef 2

time

harvesting peaks in different areas
Harvesting peaks in different areas

Reef 1

Reef 2

gonad

quality

time

percent gonad is higher in the west
Percent gonad is higher in the west

32 sites summer 2009

27 sites summer 2010

a

a

9.5%

9.5%

Santa Barbara

c

b

6.7%

5.6%

Santa Cruz

Anacapa

San Miguel

Santa Rosa

slide30
Purple urchin abundance 2007

Red urchin landings 1985-2005

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM, CDFG data

slide32
Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO)

ecosystem research and monitoring (fish and benthic subtidal sampling)

32 sites summer 2009

27 sites summer 2010

slide33
III. Ecology

What drives variability in

red urchin populations

over time and space?

Santa Barbara

  • Regression model to predict GSI
    • Temperature, abiotic factors
    • Reserve versus fished
    • Community data

San Miguel

Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa

Anacapa

slide37
Long-term (1985-2007)

E Santa Cruz and Anacapa

kelp

Density (m-2)

purple urchins

Density (m-2)

red urchins

Biomass (gm-2)

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM data

slide38
Long-term (1985-2007)

E Santa Cruz and Anacapa

kelp

Density (m-2)

purple urchins

Density (m-2)

red urchins

Biomass (gm-2)

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM data

slide39
Long-term (1985-2007)

E Santa Cruz and Anacapa

kelp

Density (m-2)

  • Red urchins have persistently higher biomass inside of the reserves.
  • Reproductive output is ~4 times higher in kelp forests versus urchin barrens

purple urchins

Density (m-2)

red urchins

Biomass (gm-2)

Shears in prep, NPS—KFM data

slide40
manipulate ecology of a managed area to increase profits
  • Purple urchin removals in historical red urchin fishing grounds?
  • kelp restoration
slide41
New strategy for fishing sea urchins
  • To take advantage of the high quality roe at the time when and locations where it is available, fish more in winter and in places where roe is of the highest quality.
    • to increase profits to urchin fishermen
    • to benefit sea urchin populations
gsi increases during regrowth
GSI increases during regrowth

west

central

east

spawning

gonadal regrowth

assess management strategies
Assess management strategies
  • Seasonal quota (TAC)
  • Individual quotas
  • Minimum size limits
  • Maximum size limits
  • Limited entry
  • Area closures
  • TURFs
  • Combination of various strategies
slide45
Quality varies seasonally

% gonad of whole body weight

{

}

west

central

east

reserves may affect gonad quality
Reserves may affect gonad quality

(Behrens & Lafferty 2004, Lafferty & Behrens 2005)

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