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General Anaesthesia. By Zach Lafleur and Thomas Ehret. Inhalational (Gas): , Cyclopropane , Xenon Intravenous (Needle): Thiopentone sodium, Methohexitone sodium, Propofol , Etomidate. Generic names – all of the above Trade name – general anaesthetics (GA)

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general anaesthesia

General Anaesthesia

By Zach Lafleur and Thomas Ehret

Inhalational (Gas): , Cyclopropane, XenonIntravenous (Needle):Thiopentone sodium, Methohexitone sodium, Propofol, Etomidate

Generic names – all of the above

Trade name – general anaesthetics (GA)

General anaesthetics are usually given to a patient through inhalation or injection

General class: analgesic

GA targets the ion channels of a neuron through the GABA pathway.


This drug is not available to the general public through prescription/over the counter and is only used in hospitals by certified anaesthetists

GA is used during operational procedures to sedate the patient (Can be used to help treat disease/disorder/illness/trait but does not directly treat)

Costs are not available to the public because shipments are ordered directly to the hospitals (operational costs vary depending on procedure)

side effects
Side Effects

Affects Cardiovascular system by:

Decreasing cardiac muscle contraction

Reducing cardiac output

Promoting Hypotension

Promoting Arrhythmias

Increasing sensitivity to catecholamines

more side effects
More Side Effects

Affects respiratory system by:

Decreasing ventilation (hypoventilation)

Promoting laryngospasm

Obstructing respiratory tract (pathway to lungs)

even more side effects
Even More Side Effects

Affects the central nervous system by:

Increasing cerebral blood flow

Increasing intracranial blood pressure

Increasing the risk of epilepsy (strokes)

Reducing the cerebral metabolic rate

just a few more
Just A Few More

Decreases the blood flow in renal veins and arteries

Can cause nausea and vomiting

Etc. There are many more minor adverse effects…

stages of ga
Stages of GA

Stage 1: Analgesia

Lasts until consciousness is lost (then Stage 2)

Pain is supressed to an extent

In a dream-like state

Does not last long

Used for women in labour, incisions, and minor operations

stages of ga1
Stages of GA

Stage 2: Delirium

Begins at loss of consciousness and ends at the return of regular respiration

Irregular breathing, heart rate, blood pressure

Vomiting, nausea, and defecation may occur

Patients may hold their breath

No operative procedures are carried out during this stage

stages of ga2
Stages of GA

Stage 3: Surgical Anaesthesia (4 planes)

Begins once regular respiration returns, ends at cessation of breathing

Plane 1 – roving eye balls

Plane 2 - loss of corneal and laryngeal reflexes

Plane 3 – pupils are dilated, light reflex is lost

Plane 4 - intercostal paralysis, small breathes as a result

stages of ga3
Stages of GA

Stage 4: Medullary and Respiratory Paralysis

Cessation of breathing

Leads to death