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Sputtering. The removal of surface atoms due to energetic particle bombardment. Sputtering. Sputtering. First observations of cathode erosion in gas discharges W.R. Grove 1853. Sputtering. Removal of surface material as a result of energetic particle bombardment.

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The removal of surface atoms due to energetic particle bombardment


First observations

of cathode erosion in

gas discharges

W.R. Grove 1853


Removal of surface material as a result of energetic particle bombardment.

  • Firstobservations: W.R. Grove 1853, J.P. Gassiot and M. Faraday 1854, 1858. J. Plücker 1858. Useful for thin film coating?
  • First systematic studies: W. Crookes 1891, G. Granquist 1897. Independent of target temperature.
  • J. Stark 1908, 1909. Hot spots? Binary elastic collisions?
  • Cosine emission distribution R. Seeliger 1935. Rules out the collision theory?
  • Crystal structure effects, G.K. Wehner 1956. Collisions back in. Sputtering yields always decrease at high energy : 1/E.
  • Linear collision cascades, relation to nuclear stopping power, J. Lindhard et al. 1963, J. Davies et al. 1960-64. P. Sigmund 1967-69.
  • BCA Monte Carlo, MARLOWE, TRIM. M.T. Robinson 1974, J. Biersack and J.F. Ziegler 1974
  • Applications in semiconductor industry, coating industry, surface analysis, fusion plasma physics and and space physics
sputter deposition
Sputter deposition

DC- and RF sputter deposition is a convenient and inexpensive coating


sputter deposition6
Sputter deposition

Magnetron sputter deposition is very widely used and allows low pressure

discharge, high coating quality and fast deposition

secondary ion mass spectrometry sims8
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

JET divertor



Elemental mapping by static SIMS

J.P. Coad et al.

J. Nucl. Mater


sputtering yield measurements12
Sputtering yield measurements

Yield energy dependence.

Ejection angle distribution,

B. Emmoth, H. Bergsåker et al 1989, 1990


Velocity distribution of sputtered atoms, measured by laser induced fluoresence.

W. Husinsky et al. 1986


Energy distribution of sputtered

Tungsten atoms and tungsten


G. Staudenmaier 1984

crystal structure effect in sputtering
Crystal structure effect in Sputtering

Single crystal effects in sputtering, G. K. Wehner, Phys. Rev. 102(1956)690-704

non linear sputtering yield with heavy ions
Non linear Sputtering yield with heavy ions

Non linear sputtering yield,

evidence of spikes . H.H. Andersen and H. Bay 1974

three different regimes for theory
Three different regimes for theory

Single knock-on regime

Linear cascade regime

Spike regime

results from linear cascade theory
Results from linear cascade theory

The linear cascade regime theory got its semi-final form from

P. Sigmund, 1969

monte carlo calculations
Monte Carlo calculations

TRIM , J.P. Biersack and W. Eckstein 1984 MARLOWE

monte carlo calculations22
Monte Carlo calculations

Molecular dynamics, C. Erginsoy et al 1964

sputtering in fusion devices26
Sputtering in fusion devices

Impurity fluxes in TEXTOR

I. Gudowska, H. Bergsåker et al.

J. Nucl. Mater. 176-177(1990)363

  • Sputtering by particle bombartment has been observed since 150 years. Apart from being a nuisance in many technical systems it also has a wide range of useful applications.
  • Physical sputtering is well understood today, especially in the linear cascade regime. Monte-Carlo methods are very useful in the single-knockon regime and with special boundary conditions.
  • Physical sputtering is a central physical phenomenon in fusion devices. For plasma modeling Monte Carlo codes and semi-empirical fits are used and give satisfactory results.