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February 7, 2009. School Governance School Law Effective Schools Communicating with Parents No Child Left Behind. Who governs the public schools?. Federal State Local . Who finances public schools?. Federal Local State. North Carolina . State Superintendent of Public Instruction

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february 7 2009
February 7, 2009
  • School Governance
  • School Law
  • Effective Schools
  • Communicating with Parents
  • No Child Left Behind
north carolina
North Carolina
  • State Superintendent of Public Instruction
  • State School Board
  • State Department of Public Instruction
local school district
Local School District
  • District School Board
  • Superintendent
  • Assistant Superintendents
  • Central Office Staff
  • Principals
  • Assistant Principals
  • Teachers
legal aspects of education
Legal Aspects of Education
  • First Amendment

Freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly

2 clauses that are often cited in lawsuits
2 Clauses that are often cited in lawsuits:
  • Establishment Clause (prohibits the establishment of government-sanctioned religion)
  • Free Exercise Clause

(protects rights of free speech and expression)

1 st amendment landmark cases establishment clause
1st Amendment Landmark Cases (Establishment Clause)
  • Engle v Vitale (1962)

Case: School initiated prayer violates the 1st Amendment

New York School System began day with non-denominational prayer acknowledging dependence on God

Challenged as unconstitutional state establishment of religion violating 1st Amendment

supreme court ruled
SupremeCourt Ruled

The government cannot sponsor such religious activities.

1 st amendment landmark case free exercise clause
1st Amendment Landmark CaseFree Exercise Clause
  • Tinker v Des Moines (1969)

Case: Students do not leave their rights at the schoolhouse door.

Mary Beth Tinker and brother wore black armbands to school to protest the Vietnam War.

tinker v des moines cont
Tinker V Des Moines (cont.)
  • Administrators removed Mary Beth and brother from school, fearing disruption
  • Supreme Court ruled that their actions were protected by the 1st Amendment
14 th amendment
14 th Amendment

Two Clauses often cited in lawsuits:

  • Due Process Clause
  • Equal Protection Clause
14 th amendment landmark case due process
14th Amendment Landmark CaseDue Process
  • Goss v Lopez (1975)

Case: Students are entitled to certain due process rights.

9 Students at Ohio public school were suspended for 10 days for disruptive behavior without due process.

goss v lopez cont
Goss v Lopez (cont.)
  • Supreme Court ruled for students:

Once the state provides an education for all of its’ citizens, it cannot deprive them of it without due process.

14 th amendment landmark case equal protection
14th Amendment Landmark Case Equal Protection
  • Brown v Board of Education (1954)

Case: State laws that establish separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities.

Oliver Brown, parent, was concerned about “separate but equal” policies of Topeka public schools.

brown v board of education cont
Brown v Board of Education (cont.)
  • District Court ruled in favor of the Topeka Board of Education stating that the schools were equal with regard to buildings, teachers, transportation and curriculum.
supreme court ruling
Supreme Court Ruling

Supreme Cour

Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote for the unanimous Court in Brown:

  • “Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship. Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.
correlates of effective schools
Correlates of Effective Schools
  • THE CORRELATES ARE THE MEANS to achieving high and equitable levels of student learning. It is expected that all children (whether they be male or female, rich or poor, black or white) will learn at least the essential knowledge, concepts and skills needed so that they can be successful.
clear mission
Clear Mission
  • Clear School Mission - In the effective school, there is a clearly articulated school mission through which the staff shares an understanding of and commitment to instructional goals, priorities, assessment procedures and accountability. Staff accept responsibility for students' learning of the school's essential curricular goals.
high expectations
High Expectations
  • High Expectations for Success - In the effective school, there is a climate of expectation in which the staff believe and demonstrate that all students can attain mastery of the essential content and school skills, and the staff also believe that they have the capability to help all students achieve that mastery.
instructional leadership
Instructional Leadership
  • Instructional Leadership - In the effective school, the principal acts as an instructional leader and effectively and persistently communicates that mission to the staff, parents, and students. The principal understands and applies the characteristics of instructional effectiveness in the management of the instructional program.
frequent monitoring of student progress
Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress
  • Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress - In the effective school, student academic progress is measured frequently. A variety of assessment procedures are used. The results of the assessments are used to improve individual student performance and also to improve the instructional program.
opportunity to learn and student time on task
Opportunity to Learn and Student Time on Task
  • Opportunity to Learn and Student Time on Task - In the effective school, teachers allocate a significant amount of classroom time to instruction in the essential content and skills. For a high percentage of this time students are engaged in whole class or large group, teacher-directed, planned learning activities.
safe and orderly environment
Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Safe and Orderly Environment - In the effective school, there is an orderly, purposeful, businesslike atmosphere which is free from the threat of physical harm. The school climate is not oppressive and is conducive to teaching and learning.
home school relations
Home / School Relations
  • Home - School Relations - In the effective school, parents understand and support the school's basic mission and are given the opportunity to play an important role in helping the school to achieve that mission.
  • Successful schools were compared with similar schools, in like neighborhoods, where children were not learning, or learning at a low level. Characteristics describing both types of schools were observed and documented. The basic conclusion of this comparative research was (is):
research findings
Research findings
  • Public schools can and do make a difference, even those comprised of students from poverty backgrounds.
  • Children from poverty backgrounds can learn at high levels as a result of public schools.
research continued
Research continued
  • There are unique characteristics and processes common to schools where all children are learning, regardless of family background. Because these characteristics, found in schools where all students learn, are correlated with student success -- they are called "correlates". This body of correlated information began what is now refered to as Effective Schools Research.
research continued1
Research continued
  • Replication research conducted in recent years reaffirms these findings and the fact that these correlates describe schools where children are learning and do not describe schools where children are learning at a much lower level.. This replication research has been conducted in all types of schools: suburban, rural, urban; high schools, middle schools, elementary schools; high socio-economic communities, middle class communities, and low socio-economic communities.
please remember
Please remember:
  • “All students can learn, and we can teach all students.”
communicating with parents
Communicating with Parents

Correlate 7:

Home School Relations

  • In the effective school, parents understand and support the school's basic mission and are given the opportunity to play an important role in helping the school to achieve that mission.