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DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH COWS, PIGS, FISH AND POULTRY. Andrew Sung 3S101 Chu Wei Xiang 3S111. Introduction Different Diseases and Prevention Case Study Video Bibliography. Content.

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diseases associated with cows pigs fish and poultry

DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH COWS, PIGS, FISH AND POULTRY

Andrew Sung 3S101

Chu Wei Xiang 3S111

content
Introduction

Different Diseases and Prevention

Case Study

Video

Bibliography

Content
introduction
When you consume meat like pork, chicken, beef and fish, have you stopped to think about the potential diseases such meat may contain?

Many of us currently are taking for granted the fact that our food is disease-free.

Introduction
mad cow disease
A brain disorder or illness of bovine (cow) species

Results in people becoming sick by consuming the meat of the infected cow

Mad cow disease
mad cow disease1
Mad cow disease
  • Earliest known records:

- Britain, 1986

- Farmers noticed cows displaying a medical condition rather like scrapie (a disease that breaks down the nerve cells in sheep)

  • As the cows started to behave crazily such as running around in circles, people hence termed the condition “mad cow disease”.
mad cow disease2
Many suspected that the farmers had fed meat to the cows, leading to them becoming “mad”, even though they did not know about the exact cause (and they were correct)

Farmers sometimes fed meat to cows because they do not have enough income to buy crops and hay for the cattle.

Mad cow disease
mad cow disease3
By 1988, 421 heads of cow in the UK contracted the disease, leading to investigations of symptoms of mad cow disease.

Cattle would display the following traits:

Weight loss (even under a regular diet)

Milk produced is lesser

Cows become more aggressive and anxious

Poor coordination of movement

The disease even has the ability to go undetected for about two to eight years, thus making it hard to detect it.

Mad cow disease
mad cow disease prevention
1. Surveillance of all cattle, culling infected animals, and disallowing certain cow food, to reduce the chance of the disease entering the human body system.

2. People are encouraged to cut down on their intake of beef and cattle over 3 months old (the time taken for cows to develop teeth and start consuming food) are banned from food markets and other outlets selling beef.

Mad cow disease - Prevention
mad cow disease prevention1
Mad cow disease - Prevention

3. Unfortunately, there are still loopholes in the ban on feeding cows: some cows are fed poultry parts, cattle blood and even restaurant leftovers because some farmers do not care what they feed the cows.

diseases associated with fish
One of the most common diseases regarding fish would be Anisakiasis, which is caused mainly by nematode worms.

This unusual pest is eaten by crustacean zooplankton, which serve as the hosts, and when the fish feed on the plankton, it then enters the system of the fish.

Diseases associated with fish
diseases associated with fish1
The larvae are roughly 10 to 50 mm, white and they lie curled in a ball found in the guts and muscle of the fish.

The disease found in humans is commonly due to the person consuming raw or partially cooked fish, thus it is important to ensure that the fish is properly cooked in order to remove the larvae and the adults inside if the fish is infected.

Diseases associated with fish
anisakiasis1
Symptoms in Humans:

Severe gastric and intestinal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Anisakiasis is commonly misdiagnosed as stomach ulcers or appendicitis.

Anisakiasis
anisakiasis prevention
When cooking fish, cook for at least five minutes at a temperature of 60 degrees Celsius (to ensure that all the worms in the fish are effectively removed).

Marinating and smoking will not always kill the larvae.

Anisakiasis - Prevention
diseases associated with pigs
Diseases associated with pigs
  • The most common disease is the swine influenza
  • Common throughout pig populations worldwide
  • Rarely transmitted to humans
swine influenza
Swine influenza
  • Routes of Transmission between Pigs:

- Direct body contact between infected and uninfected

- Airborne transmission through sneezes or coughs by pigs

  • Intensive farming tends to increase the risk of transmission

- Pigs are contained in a small area, thus they will normally be close to each other

swine influenza1
Swine influenza
  • Symptoms in Pigs:

- Fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite

- Mortality is usually low (around 1-4%)

- But it causes weight loss (up to 12 pounds of body weight) and poor growth in pigs, causing economic loss to farmers

swine influenza prevention
Swine influenza - Prevention
  • Vaccination

- The difficulty in controlling the influenza through this method has become more difficult.

- Evolution of virus has resulted in the vaccine being unable to work as effective.

  • Preventing pig-to-human transmission

- Farmers and vets are strongly encouraged to wear face masks and gloves when dealing with infected pigs.

diseases associated with poultry
Diseases associated with poultry
  • Known as avian influenza
  • Most common subtype being H5N1
  • Killed millions of poultry in countries throughout Asia, Europe and Africa

- Easily transmitted to humans

case study mexico
Early 2009, there is an outbreak of swine influenza in Mexico, which has translated to the current H1N1 pandemic.

This is due to intensive pig farming, which has grown substantially in recent years

Some giant operations are even raising tens of thousands of pigs at a time.

Case study – Mexico
case study mexico1
According to reports in Mexico City daily La Jornada and Veracruz-based paper La Marcha, Granjas Carrol, which is a subsidiary of Smithfield Foods, the world's largest pork packer and hog producer, raises 950,000 hogs per year in intensive conditions.

Damp and crowded conditions allowed for the virus to spread quickly and even mutate.

Case study – Mexico
case study mexico2
The agriculture industry took a huge hit.

- Many countries have or are likely to implement bands on meat imports.

- This is because even during small outbreaks of mad cow diseases, countries will implement such bans, which usually take years to overturn.

Case study – Mexico
videos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rT2HWdPFqMg

Interview of a family from Texas who contracted H1N1 but are recovering without difficulty.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZthewJCe9fg

Effects of the avian influenza on birds and poultry

Videos
bibliography
http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/pub/FHinfo/fhinfo03.php?0308

www.fish.wa.gov.au/sf/broc/fhinfo/fhinfo03.html

www.scribd.com/.../Disease-Trasmitted-From-Fish-to-Human

animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/information/Diseases.htm

www.aquaticcommunity.com/disease/common.php

http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/disease/common.php

www.fishyfarmacy.com/

www.madcowblog.com/.../mad-cow.../prevention-of-mad-cow-disease/

www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/submenus/sub_bse.htm

http://www.madcowblog.com/2005/07/articles/mad-cow-updates/prevention-of-mad-cow-disease/

http://tips.blogs.cnn.com/2009/04/28/swine-flus-impact-on-the-economy/

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/apr/28/swine-flu-intensive-farming-caroline-lucas

http://www.grist.org/article/2009-04-25-swine-flu-smithfield/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swine_influenza

Bibliography