Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Water Services National Training Group and National Federation of Group Water Schemes. 7 th Annual Rural Water Services Conference 18 th September 2008. Safety & Security of Water Supplies - A Public Health Issue. Dr. Heidi Pelly, Consultant, Public Health Medicine,
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Dr. Heidi Pelly,
Consultant, Public Health Medicine,
Health Services Executive
A pathogen is a microorganism capable of causing disease in a host
Waterborne pathogens excreted in faeces of humans/animals, transmitted via ingestion
Water-based pathogens occur naturally in water, usually not transmitted person to person (e.g. Legionella spp.)
Increased sensitive subpopulations
Recognition of important additional health effects, including chronic sequelae
Natural evolution of microbes with increased virulence
Development of molecular techniques leading to improvements in detection of outbreaks and their sources.
Toxigenic E. coli
944 Public water supplies
777 Public group water schemes (GWS)
706 Private GWS
100,000 – 200,000 Private wells
85% surface water
‘protection of human health’
‘protection of public health’
‘public authority’ includes Health Service Executive
‘water services authority’ replaces ‘sanitary authority’
Protection of human health
Departures from standards
Confirmed in writing by the Medical Officer of Health (EPA Handbook)
Para 11 On becoming aware … of a case or a suspected case of an infectious disease or of a probable source of infection with such disease, a medical officer of health… shall make such enquiries and take such steps as are necessary … for investigating the nature and source of infection, for preventing the spread of such infection and for removing conditions favourable to such infection
- Water Liaison Group
- Water monitoring programme
- Surveillance of notifiable disease
First point of contact with HSE
Water monitoring programme for local authorities
Water monitoring under food safety legislation
- Water & environmental specimens
- Receive notifications
- Enhanced surveillance
- case finding
- Epidemiological studies – descriptive/analytical
- International evidence
- Expert advice
- Public Health Doctors – MOH
- Surveillance Scientists
- Communicable Disease Nurse
Collate date on notifiable infections at national level
Support preparation of national guidelines/advice/IT systems e.g. CIDR
Annual reports. e.g.
- Is there a problem
- what is the cause
- Vulnerable groups
- Vulnerable sites
- Criteria for lifting
- Alternative supplies
- Loss of confidence
Inadequate knowledge of source water hazards
Extreme weather (heavy rain & runoff)
Cross-connections and distribution failures
Livestock/wildlife faecal contamination
Plant maintenance/treatment process changes
An infected person may not visit doctor
The doctor may not seek a stool specimen
The patient may not provide a specimen
The appropriate test may not be requested
The test may be done incorrectly
The test may be unable to detect pathogens present
There may be delays in laboratory reporting.
If all earth’s water fit in a gallon jug, available fresh water would equal just over a tablespoon – less than half of one percent of the total. About 97 percent of the planet’s water is seawater and another 2 percent is locked in icecaps and glaciers. Vast reserves of fresh water underlie earth’s surface, but much of it is too deep to economically tap.
Hrudley, S. E; Hrudley, E. J. (2007) Published Case Studies of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks – Evidence Of a Recurrent Threat. Critical Review. Water Environment Research, 79 (3), 233 – 245.
Dr. BethAnn Roch, HSE South (SE).
Dr Tessa Greally, HSE West (MW)