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Review of last lecture Select Repeat ARQ Performance of different ARQ schemes Data link layer -- framing HDLC PPP. ELEN 602 Lecture 7. Multiplexing. (a). (b). A. A. A. A. Trunk group. B. B. B. MUX. MUX. B. C. C. C. C. A. f. W. 0. B. f. 0. W. C. B. A. f. C.

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Elen 602 lecture 7

Review of last lecture

Select Repeat ARQ

Performance of different ARQ schemes

Data link layer -- framing

HDLC

PPP

ELEN 602 Lecture 7


Multiplexing

(a)

(b)

A

A

A

A

Trunk

group

B

B

B

MUX

MUX

B

C

C

C

C


A

f

W

0

B

f

0

W

C

B

A

f

C

f

0

W

Frequency Division Multiplexing

(a) Individual signals occupy W Hz

(b) Combined signal fits into channel bandwidth


(a) Each signal transmits 1 unit every 3T seconds

A1

A2

t

0T

6T

3T

B1

B2

t

6T

3T

0T

C1

C2

t

0T

6T

3T

0T 1T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T

A2

B2

B1

C1

C2

A1

t

Time-division Multiplexing

(b) Combined signal transmits 1 unit every T seconds


T-1 Carrier System

1

1

2

MUX

MUX

2

. . .

. . .

22

23

24

1

b

24

2

b

. . .

frame

24

24


Primary

Multiplex

Eg. Digital

Switch

24 chan PCM

M23

Multiplex

x7

M12

Multiplex

x4

DS2 6.312 Mbps

DS3 44.736 Mbps

DS1 1.544 Mbps

1

M13

Multiplex

DS3 44.736 Mbps

28

Basic Digital Hierarchy

North American Digital Hierarchy


Timing in TDM Multiplexer

t

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1


SONET Multiplexing

DS1

Low-Speed

Mapping

Function

DS2

STS-1

CEPT-1

51.84 Mbps

DS3

Medium

Speed

Mapping

Function

STS-1

44.736

OC-n

STS-n

STS-3c

STS-1

Mux

E/O

Scrambler

CEPT-4

High-

Speed

Mapping

Function

STS-1

STS-1

139.264

STS-3c

STS-1

STS-1

High-

Speed

Mapping

Function

ATM

STS-1

150 Mbps


DEMUX

DEMUX

MUX

MUX

SONET add-drop multiplexing

(a) pre-SONET multiplexing

insert

tributary

remove

tributary

(b) SONET Add-Drop multiplexing

ADM

DEMUX

MUX

insert

tributary

remove

tributary


a

OC-3n

OC-3n

b

3 ADMs

c

OC-3n

physical loop net

SONET Ring Network


a

a

OC-3n

OC-3n

b

c

b

c

OC-3n

logical fully-connected net

3 ADMs connected in

physical ring topology

Logical Networks

(b)

(a)


a

a

b

b

d

d

c

c

Surviving Faults in SONET

(a) Dual ring

(b) Loop-around in response to fault


Regional

Ring

Metro

Ring

Inter-Office

Rings

SONET Network Structure


Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Optical

MUX

Optical

deMUX

1

1

2

1

2

2.

m

Optical

fiber

m

m


(a) WDM chain network

c

b

d

a

Network Configuration using WDM

(b) WDM ring network

a

3 ADMs

b

c


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