Alcohol Notes Chapter 25
What is Alcohol? • A. Ethanol ( ETOH) A powerful drug that effects the brain and is poisonous to the body. • 1. Can be made naturally= fermentation-the chemical action of yeast on sugars • 2. Can be made chemically= water, flavoring, minerals are added to form various beverages.
What is Alcohol? • B. A Depressant- slows down nervous system • 1. slows down thinking • 2. slows down movement • 3. slows down brain function
Alcohol and its effect on the body http://www.alcohol.org.nz/BodyEffect.aspx?PostingID=1550
Brain • Thought process is disorganized • Memory and concentration are dulled • Decision making affected • Reaches brain in minutes
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • Condition in which fetus has been adversely affected mentally and physically by mother’s heavy alcohol use- • Low birth weight, impaired speech, slow body growth, retardation, hyper activity
Cerebral Cortex • The person becomes more talkative, more self-confident and less socially inhibited. • The person has trouble seeing, hearing, smelling, touching and tasting; also, the threshold for pain is raised. • The person does not use good judgment or think clearly.
Limbic System • The limbic system controls emotions and memory. As alcohol affects this system, the person is subject to exaggerated states of emotion (anger, aggressiveness, withdrawal) and memory loss.
Cerebellum • Controls fine movements. For example, you can normally touch your finger to your nose in one smooth motion with your eyes closed; if your cerebellum were not functioning, the motion would be extremely shaky or jerky. As alcohol affects the cerebellum, muscle movements become uncoordinated. A person might loose his/her balance frequently. Might be described as “falling down drunk”.
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland • Alcohol has two noticeable effects on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which influence sexual behavior and urinary excretion.
Medulla • The brain stem controls or influences all of the bodily functions that you do not have to think about, like breathing, heart rate, temperature and consciousness. As alcohol starts to influence upper centers in the medulla, a person will start to feel sleepy and may eventually become unconscious.
Esophagus • Cancer • Affect mucosal lining, tongue, gums, and throat
Heart • Abnormal heart beat • Increase heart rate and blood pressure • Scar tissue • Build up in muscle fibers = increased risk of heart attack • Dilates and widens the blood vessels, increasing blood flow to the skin. Makes it feel warm and flush. Actually decreases body temperature
Alcoholic Heart Healthy Heart
Liver • Oxidation = changes alcohol to water, carbon dioxide, and energy • Takes 1 hour to metabolize ½ oz alcohol • Alcohol keeps circulating through all body parts • Cirrhosis- condition which liver tissue is destroyed and then replaced with useless scar tissue
Stomach and Pancreas • Alcohol doesn’t have to be digested, can go from stomach to blood stream
Ascites • Fluid retention
Stages of Intoxication • 1. Judgment and Reasoning • 2. Voluntary muscle control • 3. Heart and Respiration
Stage One of AddictionSocial Drinking • Often drink to relax or relieve stress • May develop memory loss and blackouts • Often make excuses for their drinking behavior • Tolerance increases
Stage Two of AddictionTolerance Building • Cannot stop drinking • Drink alone • Drink everyday • The body has developed a tolerance • Drinking becomes a central event
Stage Three of AddictionUncontrollable Drinking • Final and worse stage • Problems can no longer be denied • Alcohol is a constant companion • Aggressive and or isolated from friends and family • The body is addicted • Reverse tolerance • When they stop drinking, there will be withdrawals
BAL or BAC • B.A.L- Blood Alcohol Level • B.A.C- Blood Alcohol Concentration • Legal limit .08% (State of WA)
Risk Factors of Alcohol Addiction • Family history of alcoholism • Family management problems • Early anti-social behavior • Parental drug and alcohol use 5. Academic failure
Risk Factors of Alcohol Addiction • Little commitment to school • Alienation, rebelliousness, and lack of social bonding to society • Friends who use drugs or alcohol • Favorable attitudes toward drug or alcohol use • Early first use of drugs and alcohol.
Treatment • No cure • May have a genetic predisposition • Early intervention has the highest success • Lifelong disorder • TOTAL ABSTINENCE is the only effective treatment once a person is addicted.
Costs to the family • The four most leading causes of accidental death(car crash, falls, drowning, and burns caused by fire) are due to alcohol consumption • Alcohol is a factor in 20-35% of all suicides and also plays a major roll in domestic violence
Cost to society • Alcohol is a major factor in the 3 leading causes of death for 16-24 year olds (traffic accidents, homicides and suicides)