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Lesson 13. Britannia Rues the Waves. dockside. Objectives of Teaching. To comprehend the whole text To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences To understand the structure of the text To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

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lesson 13

Lesson 13

Britannia Rues the Waves

objectives of teaching
Objectives of Teaching
  • To comprehend the whole text
  • To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions
  • To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences
  • To understand the structure of the text
  • To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

oil tanker

bulk carrier

passenger liner

cargo liner

container liner

container freight liner

express liner

conventional liner

feeder liner

general cargo liner

ocean liner



repent of; wish nonexistent

rue the day when one did sth.

You'll live to rue it.

Britannia rules the waves

Britain is sorry that she has lost her dominance on

the high seas.

Britain’s merchant fleet is no longer an important

item of news these days


anything on which one’s life depends

Shipping in Britain has developed into a famous,

profit-making industry.



exposure to harm or injury; imminent danger

at the peril of in peril

All is not lost that's in peril.

He is in peril of his life.

the British fleet faces the danger of being forced out

of the trade as a result of intense foreign competition.

eastern bloc countries

Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria,

East Germany


sell or work at lower prices or wages than

bent on

strongly inclined or determined


The social imperialists are bent on keeping the

situation tense in the Middle East.

There is no doubt that they are bent on the complete

destruction of Hitler and Nazism.

the lion’s share

the largest or best part of sth. when it is divided;

Several beasts joined the lion in a hunt; but , when

the spoil was divided, the lion claimed one quarter in

right of his prerogative, one for his superior courage,

one for his dam and cubs, “and as for the fourth, let

who will dispute it with me.” Awed by his frown, the

other beasts silently withdrew.

As usual, the lion’s share of the budget is for defense.


who are determined to control most of the trade

a share/interest, as in property, a person,

or a business venture


The simplest explanation for the Western nations’

reluctance to support sanctions is their considerable

economic stake in South Africa.

in which Britain has a big stake

Britain has important interests in these trade routes

Translate the clause “it can … in 1914”.


to a large amount; or considerable amount

talk/act big

think big

invested big

put in a great deal of money


(infml) to obtain a profit or other advantage

by timely exploitation

cash in

the shipping companies took advantage of

government grants and tax concessions.


launch a satellite

launch an attack

launch a new enterprise

many companies which had a long history couldn’t

stand the economic strain and went bankrupt.


(infml, esp. B. E.) risky and possibly dangerous

shipping conferences have made sea transportation

which in itself involves great danger less risky


to make a big killing

to rap big profit, to make a large amount of money

suddenly, esp. in business

come through successfully; pass safely

through (storm, difficulty)


It was a difficult time for her, but she weathered

through beautifully.

there will not be any rush and struggle to monopolize

the dwindling trade to the exclusion of others

Our profits have quadrupled in ten years.

charter rates plummeted

the amount of money paid for chartering oil-tankers

dropped drastically


marble-sized balls of naphthalene, stored

  • with clothes (esp. woolens) to repel moths;


2. the state of being stored , or kept in

existence but not used, as of no further use

He keeps his car in mothballs during the winter


We shall have to put this idea in mothballs.

more and more oil tankers all over the world lay idle

British shipowners had not invested big in the tanker

trade from the very beginning when the demand of oil

was great

a sudden falling off/decline, as in activity,

prices/ business


a stock market slump


By 1976, the bulk-carrier trade had begun to suffer

because of the slump

1. a region of the ocean near the equator,

characterized by calms, light winds


2. a low and sad state of mind;

a state of inactivity

The President was relying heavily on his think tank

to shake his Administration out of the doldrums.

suffering caused by lack of necessary things,

esp. money


American farmers, feeling the pinch, raised loud cries

of protest.

The President’s economic sanction against the Soviet

Union should pinch in the months ahead.


establish securely (used in passive voice/

with a reflexive pronoun)


The troops were entrenched near the mountains.

He entrenched himself behind his newspaper.

be entrenched within tradition

that is where Britain’s fleet is firmly and securely

established/has a firm hold

the going freight rate

currently accepted charge for sending the specified

goods there



(informal) a welcome or favourable addition

The clear weather was a plus for the golf tournament.

the plus and minus factors

a float moored in water as a warning of

danger or as a marker for a channel



ability to recover quickly from setbacks

so long as other industries are not affected and are

still developing in a satisfactory manner

That makes it possible for them to stand a better

chance than…

Much of the fleet carries goods between foreign




the journey to a (stated) place by train or ship

a ship on the San Francisco run

a train on the Beijing-Shanghai run

British companies are doing much business on the

line between Japan and Australia.

the Persian Gulf

(often in pl.) an injurious intrusion on/into;

an advance, esp. at another's expense;


+ on/upon/into

Foreign products have made inroads into the

American economy.

These hospital expenses made inroads on my savings.


They are also the routes…the biggest inroads.

They are also the routes on which the Third World

and the Russians are making a determined effort to

take over (to grab) from Britain as much business

as possible.

the status symbol

a sign which sows one’s high social position

Developing countries regard…after a national airline.

Developing countries consider a merchant navy very

important because it is a sign showing that these

countries have become economically strong and

independent, so after they have set up a national

airline, the next thing thy would like to have is a

merchant fleet.


throw in the towel

admit defeat or failure; surrender


to spend money on those branches with advanced

and complex technology so that Third World countries

cannot afford and are not in a position to compete

put up

provide (funds) in advance

They finally got a company to put up money for the

new musical.


is far from being the whole…the Third World threat

this strategy is not at all (by no means) the complete

answer to the Third World threat. This does not

entirely solve the problem


to establish/apply as compulsory; to apply

  • by/as if by authority


+ on/upon

New duties were imposed on wines and spirits.

2. obtrude or force (oneself, for example) on

another or others

Don't impose yourself on people who don't want you.

3. vi. to take unfair advantage

You are always imposing on their generosity.

they want to impose…of the shipping trade

they want to pass a series of rules for all the

countries to follow, hoping that in this way they will

be able to get the biggest share of the trade


find expression in

be expressed by means of

At home, British outrage found expression in news


Growing mutual suspicion found its expression in

increased armaments and the preparation of plans

for war.

Let this plaque serve as an expression of our esteem.

the United Nations Conference on Trade and


That leaves only 20 per cent…cross-traders

The cross-traders will have to fight for their shares

of the 20 percent that have been left to them


if it does become universal

if it is ratified by most of the countries and comes

into effect

show a satisfactory reason or excuse for

sth. done


A far more serious view was taken of the situation

than was justified.

The course of events fully justifies our views.

Nothing can justify such careless mistakes.

He had justified every expectation.

Neither the growth in Russia’s trade nor that in world

trade would require ( warrant, demand) such a rapid

development of Russia’s cargo-liner fleet; would make

it necessary for the fleet to develop so rapidly.


has already made major inroads into Western trade

has already penetrated (cut ) deeply into Western

trade, that is, has taken over a large part of the trade

carried by Western fleets

  • be able to do sth. without causing
  • serious problems

afford to

We simply can't afford to offend such an important


2. have enough money/time to do sth.

They can't afford to buy such an expensive color TV


3. be able to spare or give up

We are almost busy to death now and can't afford

an hour for lunch.


How can the Russians…40 per cent?

How is it possible for the Russians to stand the loss

of lowering the freight rate by 40 percent?

in our sense of the word

how we understand the word

the name of the game

(colloquial) the basic, central, or critical point of the


Well, all right, I said, the name of the game is trust:

you’ve got to trust things.

In the rough and tumble world of professional

basketball, survival is often the name of the game.


The phrase comes from the fact that in certain games,

esp. in card games, the game’s object is expressed

by its name, as in the expression “to get 21”.

The thing that really counts (matters) for Russian

ships is foreign currency; the true purpose why the

Russians undercut by up to 40 percent is to grab the

trade( to squeeze out the competitors) and earn

foreign currency.

What does the word “even” indicate?

do or provide (sth lacking, needed, not

done, lost or missed)

make up

the loss can be compensated by the Soviet

government in roubles


there is more to it than that for the Russians

that is not the only purpose of the Russians

The former allies are now sworn enemies. But there

was more to it than that: Vietnam has become Soviet

Russia’s pawn in Southeast Asia.

He turned and went out, cursing his own stupidity.

And yet as he walked towards the barn, he knew in

his heart that there was more to it than that.

which …reach well beyond its perimeters

these ships would undoubtedly make it possible for

the Soviet Union to exert its influence on countries

far from its territory



1. cause (an image) to appear on a surface

project the slide onto a screen

2. get (ideas, feelings, one’s presence etc.)

across to others effectively

A singer must learn to project his voice so as to be

heard in a large hall.

A politician must project himself if he wants to win

an election.

project one's country overseas

to project their power at some distance from their

own frontiers

to cause their influence to be felt at places far away

from their own territory


hydrographic policy

a plan to study and map the oceans with reference to

their navigational and commercial uses

this is also part of a general Soviet hydrographic

policy to map the oceans of the world

the mapping of the oceans will make its fleet familiar

with the main sea-routes all over the world; this

should be considered part of its expansionist policy

Translate the 25th paragraph.

greatest or smallest amount, degree, etc. of

what is possible


+ to

Are there no limits to your tolerance?

He will support it to the limit of the resources at his



They would surely fight if pushed to the limit.

There is a limit, …can do on its own.

There will be a point where the British government

finds it cannot do any more (finds it has exhausted

its resources).

… has been calling for a coordinated response

Britain, West Germany and Demark have asked other

EEC member countries to take joint action to meet

the Russian challenge

the monitoring of Russian ship movements

the watching, following and checking on Russian

ship movements


the French… blocked plans along these lines

the French, because of their close connections with

the Soviet Union, created all kinds of difficulties to

prevent the adoption of plans that could put into

effect countermeasures to offset the Russian


Shipowners fear that… its merchant fleet.

Shipowners fear that those people might be more

concerned about employment in the shipyards than

about saving the British merchant fleet.

produce in quantity without quality; to

produce in an abundant & automatic manner

churn out

This factory churns out lots and lots of cars a day.

She churns out romantic novels.


financial assistance given by one person or

government to another


British shipbuilders would raise all the credit

British shipbuilders would be responsible for securing

loans for the Poles

Smaller shipping lines do not have the resources to


Smaller shipping companies cannot afford to invest in

several different trades so as to make sure they won’t

suffer great losses.

when these smaller shipping companies go bankrupt

(are forced out of business), a big part of the few old

industries that have been doing well and bringing in

huge profits will also close down (stop functioning)