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  1. Growth of Russia Mongolian influence Ivan’s Time of Troubles Romanov’s Western or Not Western

  2. Russia and its Neighbors: An Historical Approach to Contemporary Problems Rise and Fall of the Russian Empire • Ancient Peoples and Early Centers (862-1240) • Kievan Rus • Novgorod • Muscovy • Under Mongol Rule – the Golden Horde • Rule from the Steppe (1240-1487) • Tribute of the boyars • The Muscovite Era and Growth of the Russian Empire • Impact of the Romanov Family (1689-1917) • Revolution and the End of the Monarchy

  3. Under Mongol Rule: (1240-1487) Mongol Empire Ghengis Khan The Golden Hoard of the Mongol Empire

  4. Territorial Shift • Much of the territory added to Russia was Asian • Partially because they wished to create a buffer zone from the Mongolians • The political center of Russia shifted from Novgorod and Kiev to the Duchy of Moscow • Later under Peter the Great their was a cultural shift to the “window to the west”

  5. Impact of Mongolians • Military tactics and organization • Development of trade routes. • Postal road network • Census • Fiscal system • Eastern influence remained strong well until the 18th century, when Russian rulers made a conscious effort to Westernize their country.

  6. The Muscovite Era and Growth of the Russian Empire: Late 1400s-Early 1500s Ivan III "The Great" 1462-1505

  7. The Cossacks Expand Across Siberia: Late 1500s to mid 1600s

  8. Impact of shift • Russians sent Cossacks to hold the newly acquired land • Cossacks were peasants who migrated to these new areas • Trade from China was refocused through Russia

  9. Russian progress • Ivan III wrested Russia from Mongolian control • Russia was mostly an agrarian civilization (95% until 1800s) • The power of the boyars differed from the aristocracy in the west in that they continued to use coercive labor systems and wield power over the serfs with the Bashina and obrok until after 1917 • Russian serfdom became hereditary in 1649 • Ivan the Great (III) declared that Russia had become the “third Rome” , inheriting the claim from the declining Byzantine Empire (defeat to the Ottoman’s in 1452) • Ivan IV (terrible 1533-1584)) tried to solidify Russian authority by controlling the boyars • Following his death there was a period of unrest known as the “Time of Troubles” resulting in the Romanov dynasty coming to power • It wasn’t until 1770’s until the Pugachev rebellion that there was any dissension • Many of the peasants identified their culture and political asperasions with this rebellion

  10. Ivan IV "The Terrible" (1533-1584) Ivan killed his son Ivan Fedor the Simple Boris Gudinov

  11. Autocrats • Michael was the first Romanov • He was able to establish some stability but did not re-establish the autocracy of the emperor or czar • He expanded into the Ukraine and re-united Kiev with the rest of Russia • He waged a successful war against Poland

  12. While others were reforming… • Alexis was able to re-establish the power of the czar by outlawing assemblies of the boyars • He also re-organized the Orthodox Church • Those who would not reform were called the Old believers and many were exiled to Siberia for their conservative views

  13. What was the nature of early Russian expansion under the Ivans • Early expansion focused on central Asia • Need to drive Mongols farther from Russia • Extended to Ural Mountains on west and Caspian Sea to the south • Recruited peasants to migrate to newly conquered territories • Served both agricultural and military purposes-Cossacks • New territories similar to Western colonialism, became economically dependent on Russia • Eliminated independent central Asia as source of nomadic invasions • Incorporated many ethnic and religious groups into empire

  14. Growth of the Russian Empire: The Romanovs Peter Romanov "The Great" 1689-1725

  15. In what way did Peter the Great reform the economy and government of Russia through Westernization • built up metallurgical and mining industries • primary purpose was to make military technology, remain independent of West • supplied industries with cheap labor source from serfs. • Politics: seized on absolutist forms of government in West • organized military along Western lines • built navy • completed destruction of noble councils • provincial governors appointed from center • rationalized law codes • new tax system installed • Basically streamlined the bureaucracy and reorganized the military • His wars with Sweden and the Ottoman Empire indicated a shift from Asian expansion

  16. Growth of the Russian Empire: The Romanovs Czarina Catherine the Great 1762-1796

  17. Focus in the Nineteenth Century: Central Asia and Far East

  18. Grand Duchy of Muscovy(Czar Ivan the Terrible - 1547-1584)

  19. (Czar Peter the Great- 1682-1725)Western Orientation - St Petersburg

  20. Czarina Catherine the Great (1760-1796) Expands south and east

  21. Percent of the Population Non-Russian in Russia

  22. In what ways were the policies of Westernization undertaken by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great more appearance than substance • Peter the Great: • cultural changes only affected elite • no attempt to extend reforms to masses • economic reforms significant, but no attempt to establish exporting industries, only interested in military technology. • Catherine the Great: • interested in French Enlightenment, but introduced no meaningful reform along Enlightenment lines • no attempt to cure problems of coercive labor system • legal system actually made harsher • nobility given almost absolute control over masses • government lost contact with serfs in return for aristocratic government service.

  23. What were the primary differences by the eighteenth century between Russia and the West? • Dominance of the nobility greater than in West • dependent on increasingly coercive system of serfdom as West was developing different labor patterns • by 1649 serfdom was a hereditary caste • failure of urbanization • lack of substantial merchant class left state in control of capitalizing industrial development • remained almost entirely agricultural • could not avoid dependence on West.

  24. Eastern Europe • Triest – Elbe line • Weaker centralized governments • Coercive labor systems • Hungary – 95% agrarian through 1800s • Poland – Partition of Poland

  25. Peter the Great’s map

  26. Timer Lane’s Empire