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GWR Requirements • Must Provide one source sample after detection of TC+ • Must be collected from water source in use at the time of collection • Must be collected within 24 hours • Samples must be analyzed for one of three (3) fecal indicators: E. coli, enterococci or coliphage • If fecal indicator is found five additional source water samples must be analyzed • Assessment of source water monitoring may be requied for systems at risk for fecal contamination
Sampling Location • For triggered and source water monitoring and assessment source water monitoring, samples must be collected at the groundwater source • A smooth sample tap pointing downward must be provided at each source
Sample Collection Procedures • Provide for Easy Access and Safe Location • Collect Representative Sample, i.e., location, sample type, collection time and frequency • Use sterile, plastic or glass containers with leak-proof lid • Must analyze at lease 100 ml sample volume (suggest collect > 100 ml to ensure volume) • Sample containers should provide at minimum, 1” of headspace to facilitate mixing by shaking prior to analysis
Sample Collection Precautions to Prevent Accidental Contamination • Accidental Contamination – Remove Obstruction (aerators, hoses, etc. that harbor bacteria • Sample Containers – Use Appropriate Type of Container • Sample tap with no treads or leaking at spigot
E. Coli and Enterococci Sample Volume > 120 ml for spillage Container to provide 1” headspace Coliphage If SM 1601 used either Sample Volume > 100 ml or 1 liter to be used. If SM 1602 used only requires > 100 ml Collect 2.5X more of the sample calls for Provide 1” headspace Fecal Indicator Sampling
GWR Sampling Precautions • Sample collectors should wash hands and/or wear sterile gloves • Foreign material from hands or contact with contaminated surfaces must be prevented • Do not wash Bacteria into the sample from spigot when sampling • Keep Cigarette smoke (includes second hand smoke) or dust away from sample • Do not used damaged or contaminated sample container • Do not take sample in contaminated clothes
Proper Sampling Procedures DEP-SOP-001/01 FS 2300 Drinking Water Sampling
DEP SOP’s for Drinking Water Sampling See also the following Standard Operating Procedures: FA 1000 and 2000 Administrative Procedures FC 1000 Cleaning/Decontamination Procedures FD 1000-9000 Documentation Procedures FM 1000 Field Planning and Mobilization FQ 1000 Field Quality Control Requirements FS 1000 General Sampling Procedures FS 2000 General Aqueous Sampling FT 1000 – FT 2000 Field Testing and Calibration Procedures
Preparing for Field Sampling • Cooler for shipping and storage of your sample while in transit between collection point and lab • Ice in baggies for shipping cooler • PVC or unsupported Neoprene gloves to keep sample from possible contamination • 125mL sample bottle with sodium thiosulfate for chlorinated water systems • Lab slips, labels, and markers for sample container identification • Paper towel for drying off the outside of sample
Sample Information Needed for GWR Use on-site sample log book or sample collection form and record the following information: • Name of System and PWS # • Sample Site Location • Sample Type (whether Triggered or Assessment) • Sampler’s Name • Sample Number • Date of Sample Collection • Time of Sample Collection • Analysis Requested
Use AppropriateSterile SamplingContainers and Gloves • 125mL sterilized glass and plastic bottles
Step 1: Sample Site Selection • Select an approved sampling location • Non-threaded test spigots provide per DEP requirements at the wellhead should be used
Step 2: Remove Sources of Contamination • Water taps must be free of aerators, strainers, hoses, mixing or dosing tubes or any other device that can harbor bacteria and cause a false positive sample result. • The spigot must be free of dirt, mold or other foreign materials
Step 3: Flush Deposits or Debris from Spigot • Turn on the cold water and run the water to flush the tap. • This typically takes 1-3 minutes. • Then reduce the flow so that the stream is no greater than 1/8 inch in diameter, or the width of a pencil.
Step 4: Prepare Sample Container • Remove the bottle cap • Be careful not to contaminate the sample by touching the inside of the cap or the inside of the sample container with your fingers. • Everything must be aseptic (sterile)
Step 5: Collection of Sample • Position the bottle under the water flow. • Hold the bottle in one hand and the cap in the other. • Do not lay the cap down or put it in your pocket! • Water dripping from your hands may also cause contamination. • Fill the bottle providing 1 inch head space with at least sample above the 100ml fill line.
Step 6: Preparing Sample for Storage • The sample container should be tightly capped. • Blot the sample container with a paper towel to dry it off. • Ice for shipping should be bagged separately or frozen in containers to prevent contamination. • Make sure sample is nestled and that any melted ice water does not raise above the sample containers.
Step 7: Label and SecureSample for Shipping. • Check that the information on the label is correct and check the laboratory form and attach it to the bottle inside plastic bag and with a rubber band. • Complete additional laboratory forms that came with the sample bottle, including chain-of-custody As soon as the sample is capped it must be placed in foam box The cooler must be double bagged with ice and sealed with duct tape
Step 8: Packaging and Transport of Samples to Laboratory • Contact the Laboratory ASAP after the samples are taken • The samples must reach the laboratory and the analysis must begin within 30 hours of collection. All samples must be cooled to 4 degrees Celsius (39 degrees Fahrenheit). • If the laboratory is nearby, refrigerate with them with ice packs, and deliver the samples directly. • If not, send the samples overnight by US mail or by an overnight courier. • Be sure to tape any additional forms or sample documentation either inside or on the outside of the lid.
The Chain of Custody • The movement and location of physical presence of the sample from the time it is obtained until the time it is analyzed. • A record of individuals who have had physical possession of the sample. • Duration of sample custody • Security and environmental conditions while handling or storing the sample • Manner in which sample is transferred to subsequent custodians each time such a transfer occurs • Signatures of persons involved at each step
Common Errors in Sampling • Improper Sample • Poor Preservation • Lack of Mixing during Compositing and Testing
Required Quality Control and Quality Assurance Programs • All parties producing data for use by DEP are required to use applicable DEP SOPs per the DEP Quality Assurance Rule, 62-160.210, .240, .300 & .320, F.A.C. • QA – Written Operating Principles for Collection, Testing and Analysis • QC - Management Responsibilities that Ensure the Quality of Sampling Laboratory Procedures, Results and the Inspection Processes Used to Prevent Undetected Errors.
DEP Quality Management RequirementsEach organization shall establish and maintain a system that: • Identifies, implement and promote quality assurance policies and procedures that will produce data of a known and verifiable quality • Creates and/or identify and follow standard operating procedures for all activities, both technical and administrative; • Monitors adherence to the established policies, procedures and written standard operating procedures; • Establishes and use procedures for continual improvement through both corrective and preventive action policies; and • Monitors quality of the organization’s operations.
Technician LevelThe field technician or sample collector must : • Perform field measurement tests according to FDEP SOPs including calibrations; • Verify that all calculations (e.g., purge volume) are correct; • Collect samples following the FDEP SOPs using appropriate equipment; • Ensure that sample containers are properly and accurately labeled; • Ensure that appropriate preservatives are added; • Legibly and fully document all activities in field logs or field data sheets ; • Ensure that all field information is accurately recorded; • Identify and/or document potential quality control problems; • Maintain equipment and test instruments in working condition, and document all preventative maintenance and repairs; • Implement any corrective action procedures that are a result of any type of audit.
Bacteriological Sample Information to be Supplied by the Sample Collector