Unit 16 Open the Door to Forgiveness By Lewis B. Smedes
Contents • Pre-reading questions • Background information • Structure analysis • Language points of Text I • Exercises • Comprehension questions of Text II • Oral activities • Writing practice
Pre-reading questions 1. Have you ever tried to forgive someone who hurt you in some way? 2. How do you think of the ancient phrase “an eye for an eye and a tooth for for a tooth?
Background information about the author (1) Lewis B. Smedes is professor of theology and ethics at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California, USA.
Background information about the author (2) 史麦迪博士（Dr. Lewis Smedes）是位神学教授，他在《饶恕与忘记》（Forgive and Forget）一书中入木三分地写道：「报复永远无法把恩怨扯平，因为彼此为敌的人，根本不可能用相同的计算方法来衡量过失。唯一的办法就是饶恕，只有饶恕才能斩断盘桓在你脑海中的不平之痛。
Background information about the author (3) 史麦迪说，饶恕并不是把事情都忘掉，不是找借口加以开脱，也不是轻描淡写不了了之。其实，饶恕是打破冤冤相报的循环，从而走出过去倍感冤屈的阴影，创造新的公平观。对爱而言，宽恕是最难和最冒险的。宽恕是伴著上帝饶恕之心的节拍起舞；宽恕是在爱的风口浪尖驰骋；宽恕是把自由还给囚徒，接著，你会发现那囚徒原来就是自己。
Structural analysis of the Text(1) Paragraphs1—2 The first two paragraphs serve as an introduction, in which the author mentions the common phenomenon of people hurting each other. Paragraph 3 The author proposes the right approach to the matter by quoting a philosopher’s words and giving the example of Pope John Paul II.
Structural analysis of the Text(2) Paragraphs4—5 In these two paragraphs the author comments on our reactions to “deep and unfair hurts” from two perspectives. He first admits that it is not easy to forgive, but he points out the true merit of forgiveness. While he acknowledges that “our natural response” is hate, he reminds us of its detrimental effects. Thus the author drives home his point that forgiveness is a more sensible choice.
Structural analysis of the Text(3) • Paragraph 6 • This is a transitional paragraph that leads to the author’s suggestions. • Paragraphs7—9 • In these paragraphs the author puts forward the first guideline exemplified by Liz’s case.
Structural analysis of the Text(4) • Paragraphs10—12 • These paragraphs make up the second guideline for forgiveness.
Language points(1) 1.heal to make healthy again e.g. This cream is used for healing minor cuts and bruises. e.g. The seawater is now polluted. It would infect rather than heal an open wound. 2.betray to be unfaithful to e.g. When I heard what my friends had said about me I felt betrayed. e.g. You have betrayed our trust in you, and for that you must be punished.
Language points(2) • 3. abuse: to say unkind or rude things to • e.g. By mid-afternoon the miners were getting drunk and abusing passers-by. • e.g. An angry passenger abused the station manager for the late running of the train. • 4.pay for: to receive punishment or suffering for something • e.g. I’ve spent the last three years in jail. I tell you, I’ve paid for what I did. • e.g. With a ten-year prison sentence, he’s paying dearly for his crimes now.
Language points(3) • 5.fire: to dismiss from a job • e.g. Fifty workers have been fired for joining the strike. • e.g. Nancy’s never forgiven her former employer since she was fired six months ago. • 6. trapped: unable to move or escape • e.g. The children were trapped in the bedroom of the blazing house. • e.g. I feel so trapped. I can’t leave that lousy job until the house is paid for.
Language points(4) • 7. guideline: instruction on how something should be done • e.g. Medical staff have been issued with new guidelines when working with the patients. • e.g. The police were severely criticized for failing to heed guidelines when out in a boat. • 8. confront: to face bravely • e.g. They have confronted the problem of terrorism with great courage.
Language points(5) • 9. malice: intention to hurt someone • e.g. They was no malice in his words, just disappointment. • e.g. He got no advantage out of it; he did it from pure malice. • 10. hide from : to keep from being known • e.g. Frogs can search for food underwater, hidden from birds of prey.
Language points(6) • 11. fury: very great anger • e.g. It is no use trying to argue with you when you fly into a fury for the slightest reason. • 12. rage: wild uncontrollable anger • e.g. The child flew into a rage and began scattering its toys about. • e.g. From the garage came a shout of rage as he discovered the damage.
Language points(7) • 13. surface: the part that is easily seen, not the main(hidden) part • e.g. He seems rather shy on the surface, but he’s quite different when you get to know him. • 14. infect: to make(someone else) have feelings of the same type • e.g. She infected the whole class with her enthusiasm. • e.g. His optimism infected us all in those days of great difficulty.
Language points(8) • 15. compel: to force (a person) to do something • e.g. The high cost of materials will compel manufacturers to increase their prices. • e.g. More and more details of her private life appeared in the press, thus compelling her to resign. • 16.acknowledge: to admit; to recognize the fact • e.g. He acknowledges it’s going to be a tough job, but he’s going to try it anyway. • e.g. Tiger Woods is acknowledged as the best golf player in the world.
Language points(9) • 17. face up to: to be brave enough to meet • e.g. You should face up to things, not just pretend that nothing is happening. • e.g. The principal accused parents of not facing up to their responsibilities. • 18. promote: to give(someone) a higher position • e.g. Three years ago, Mr. Johnson was promoted to the position of manager of a large bank.
Language points(10) • 19. be critical: to criticize someone or something severely • e.g. The article is highly critical of the policies toward Central America. • e.g. Most people are very critical of the US invasion of Iraq. • 20. recommendation: the act of praising as being good for a purpose • e.g. We accept the recommendation and we shall act on it as soon as possible. • e.g. The committee made a number of recommendations for improving safety standards in airplanes.
Language points(11) • 21. set free : to give freedom • e.g. That country is ready to set free five prisoners in return for the release of the hostages. • 22. wrong: to be unfair to or cause suffering to • e.g. I wronged him by saying he had lied
Language points(12) • 23. strip someone of : to take away from • e.g. The captain was stripped of his license after the collision. • e.g. Having been stripped of all his titles, the politician disappeared from public life. • 24. insight: the power of using one’s mind to understand the true nature of a situation • e.g. Jerry soon established himself as a scientist of great insight and creativity. • e.g. She has a real insight into the way people subconsciously seek to justify their actions.
Language points(13) • 25. darken: to make or become dark • e.g. The sky darkened and the rain began to fail. • e.g. She had put on her makeup and darkened her eyelashes. • 26. attempt: to make an attempt (to do something) • e.g. The patient attempted to speak but the doctor told him to be quiet. • e.g. The examination was so difficult that few people even attempted it.
Language points(14) • 27. vengeance: revenge • e.g. Throughout the play, Hamlet is driven by the desire for vengeance for the murder of his father. • 28. reconcile: to bring back friendly relations between • e.g. They quarreled, but now they’ve completely reconciled.
Language points(15) • 29. infidelity:a lack of loyalty, unfaithfulness • e.g. In the past some women often had to tolerate their husband’s infidelity because they depended completely on their money. • 30. laughingly: not seriously; as a joke • e.g. He’s often laughingly referred to as the forgotten man of British politics.
Exercises (1) • Part II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words. • 1. Freud’s approach to the analysis of dreams is highly_____________(compel). • 2.We have yet to hear any • (acknowledge) from them that a problem actually exists. compelling acknowledgement
Exercises (２) • ３．The survey showed that women were paid at lower rates than men and had less chance of _______.(promote) • ４．There was no hope of a ________(reconcile) between the families. promotion reconciliation
Exercises (３) • ５．After weeks of discussion the two sides have reached a ______(mutual)acceptable settlement. mutually
Part IV. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form. Worth reconcile guidelines recommendation let off the hookCompel promote strip of vicious circle keep under control １． For your own safety, try to follow these basic ____________when out in a boat. guidelines
２.The young army officer was ________ to the rank of captain. • ３.Although they are prepared to be _______ with each other, teacher is willing to make the first move. promoted reconciled
４.More and more teenagers are caught in a _________of drug addiction and crime. • ５．I have no intention of looking for Mike, but by the time I was passing that street it really seemed that there was nothing else in the world that was ______doing. vicious circle worth
Translation exercises • 1. 损失是由于他疏忽大意造成的，为此他必须受到惩罚。（pay for） • The damage is due to his negligence, so he’ll have to pay for it. • ２．这幢房子隐藏在一排高大的树木之中。(hide from) • The house was hidden from view by a row of tall trees.
３. 投票结果公布以后，首相承认了失败。(acknowledge) • When the results of the vote were announced, the Prime Minister acknowledged defeat. • ４. 我们必须勇于承担责任，而不应设法逃避。(face up to) • We must face up to our responsibilities and not try to get out of them.
５．照我的话做，你就会获释。 (set free) • Do as I tell you and you shall be set free. • ６．如果你要参加英语考试，这本书值得一读。(worth) • That book is really worth reading if you’re going to take the English exam.
７．有些政府官员一旦尝到了权利的甜头就不愿自动放弃。 (let go of) • Some government officials would not let go of power once they have seen its benefits. • ８. 政府被推翻了，军方控制了国家。(keep under control) • The government has been overthrown and the military has kept the country under control.
Comprehension Questions of Text II 1.Does forgiving do good to the giver or receiver in the author’s opinion? What is your opinion about it? 2. Does the author think that anything can be forgiven? What’s your opinion about it?
Oral Activity Hold a debate on the topic “ Forgive or Not” in class.
Writing Practice • Write a composition of about 200 words on the following topic: • Why Shall We Forgive Each Other?
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