Information systems security
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Information Systems Security. Physical Security Domain #4. Physical Security Areas. Threat Types Threat Sources Vulnerabilities Physical Organization Current Measures Physical Security Procedures Environmental Controls Physical Barriers. Threat Types. Environmental Malicious

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Information systems security

Information Systems Security

Physical Security

Domain #4


Physical security areas
Physical Security Areas

  • Threat Types

  • Threat Sources

  • Vulnerabilities

  • Physical Organization

  • Current Measures

  • Physical Security Procedures

  • Environmental Controls

  • Physical Barriers


Threat types
Threat Types

  • Environmental

  • Malicious

  • Accidental


Layered defense
Layered Defense

  • Site Location

  • Physical and Procedural Methods

  • Physical Controls

    • Guard Post

    • Visitor Security

    • Delivery Security

    • Fire Control


Fire detection systems
Fire Detection Systems

  • Ionization – Reacts to charged particles in smoke

  • Photoelectric – Reacts to changes in or blockage of light caused by smoke

  • Heat – Significant changes in ????


Physical controls
Physical Controls

  • Fencing

  • Lighting

  • Locks

  • Mantraps

  • Dogs

  • Guards


Location consideration
Location Consideration

  • Natural Disasters

  • Local Crime

  • Highway/airport access

  • Customer access

  • Joint tenants

  • Proximity to emergency services

  • Visibility????


Construction issues
Construction Issues

  • Building Codes

  • Levels of fire resistance

  • Data Center Location

    • No basements or top floors

    • Controlled access

    • Do not use partitions


Physical controls1
Physical Controls

  • Locks

    • Conventional

    • Pick-resistant

    • Electronic key systems

    • Electronic combination lock


Facility access
Facility Access

  • Photo ID viewed by a guard

  • Biometric devices

  • Card badge reader

  • Proximity devices

    • User activated

    • System sensing

  • AVOID PIGGYBACKING

    • Use mantraps


Fencing
Fencing

  • 3-4 Feet – deters casual trespassers

  • 6-7 Feet – hard to climb easily

  • 8 Feet with 3 strands of barbed wire BEST

  • Powered Fences

  • PIDAS Fences

    • Perimeter Intrusion Detection and Assessment System


Lighting
Lighting

  • Required in critical areas

  • Ensure there are no dead zones

  • Two candle feet of power at eight feet high


Guards
Guards

  • Best deterrent, but most expensive

  • Provides discriminating judgment

  • Watches for piggybacking and suspicious activity

  • Enforce regulations


Types of physical ids
Types of Physical IDS

  • Electro-mechanical

    • Magnetic switches

    • Metallic foil in windows

    • Pressure mats

  • Volumetric

    • Vibration

    • Photoelectric

    • Ultrasonic and passive infrared


Mobile devices
Mobile Devices

  • Locking cable to anchor

  • Tracing software

  • Encryption

  • Biometric controls


HVAC

  • Positive air pressure

    • Air goes out when doors are opened

  • Protect vent

  • Dedicated power lines

  • Emergency switch-off valves

  • Same rules for water supply


Electrical power
Electrical Power

  • Dependable primary power source

  • Alternative power source

    • Generator

    • UPS (online and standby)

  • Additional feeder from substation

  • Power not always clean and constant

  • Voltage fluctuations


Power terms
Power Terms

  • Fault – momentary loss of power

  • Blackout – complete loss of power

  • Sag – momentary low voltage

  • Spike – momentary high voltage

  • Surge – prolonged high voltage

  • Noise – steady interfering disturbance

  • Transient – short noise disturbance


Electrical consideration
Electrical Consideration

  • High Humidity

    • Can cause corrosion

  • Low Humidity

    • Can cause static electricity

  • Also use antistatic flooring in server areas

  • Wear antistatic bands when working on internal computer systems


Recommendation
Recommendation

  • Computer room 60-75 Fahrenheit

  • Humidity 40% - 60%

  • 17,000 volts damages circuits


Fire prevention
Fire Prevention

  • Four legs of fire

    • Heat (Reduce Temperature)

    • Fuel (Remove fuel)

    • Oxygen (Remove oxygen)

    • Chemical Reaction (Disrupt chemical combustion)


Fire detection systems1
Fire Detection Systems

  • Configured to call fire station

  • Shuts down HVAC

  • On and above suspended ceilings

  • Below raised floors

  • In air ducts



Extinguishers
Extinguishers

  • Halogenated

    • Used in place of water

  • FM-200

    • Replacement for Halon

  • Carbon Dioxide

    • Does not damage sensitive devices

  • Dry Chemicals

    • Not effective against electrical fires


Water pipes
Water Pipes

  • Wet Pipe

    • Always contains water

    • Can freeze in cold weather

    • Most commonly used

  • Dry Pipe

    • Water not in pipe

    • Released after delay

    • Allows system shut down before water release


Water pipes contd
Water Pipes (contd)

  • Pre-action systems

    • Water released after a sprinkler head is melted

  • Deluge system

    • Sprinkler head is open

    • Releases a lot of water fast


Extinguishers1
Extinguishers

  • Placed within 50 feet of electrical equipment

  • Inspected four times a year

  • Clearly marked

  • Easily reached

  • Filled with appropriate reagents


Physical intrusion detection
Physical Intrusion Detection

  • Electrical Circuits

  • Light Beams

  • Passive IR

  • Ultrasonic


Management issues
Management Issues

  • Physical Security Audits

  • Drills

  • Internal Testing

  • Pen Testing

  • Maintenance Issues

  • Education and Training


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