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Now that you have finished the course— GO FOR IT !!!. AP PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW. Descartes Aristotle Plato (mind not Socrates separate (mind separate from from body- body-knowledge is knowledge innate-born within grows from

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ap psychology review
AP PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
  • Descartes Aristotle
  • Plato (mind not
  • Socrates separate

(mind separate from from body-

body-knowledge is knowledge

innate-born within grows from

us) dualism experience

monism

slide3
Measures of central tendency-
  • Mean, median, mode

p. 41

  • Measures of variation-
  • Range and standard deviation

p. 41

  • Research methods-
  • Descriptive, correlational, experimental p. 39
slide4
Who invented phrenology?
  • Franz Gall
  • Neuron communication
  • Sensory neurons
  • Afferent
  • Motor neurons
  • Efferent
  • Sympathetic nervous system-stimulates
  • Parasympathetic -pacifies
slide5
Nature vs. Nurture
  • Biopsychosocial influences p. 135
  • Individualist cultures and collectivist cultures
  • Individualist proverb: “The squeaky wheel gets the grease.”
  • Collectivist proverb: “The quacking duck gets shot.”
slide6
Stages of development-
  • Ainsworth strange situation paradigm
  • P. 156 secure and insecure attachment
  • Harry Harlow –experiments on comfort
  • Kubler Ross -stages of dying
  • (Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance)
  • Fluid and crystallized intelligence
slide7
Absolute threshold-
  • JND-just noticeable difference
  • Weber’s (Vay’ber’s)Law-
  • Two lights-8%,weight-2%,tones-.3%
  • Gate-control theory-
  • gate opened by activity of pain signals traveling up small nervefibers
  • Gate closed by activity of pain signals traveling up large fibers p.227
slide8
Gestalt – form or whole
  • Monocular and binocular cues
  • Visual cliff experiment-
  • depth perception
  • Perceptual set-mental predisposition
  • Human factors psychologists-
  • help design appliances, machines, etc. that fit our natural perceptions.
slide9
Sleep cycle (B A D) Beta, Alpha,

(Theta), Delta

Spindles in stage 2

REM- about 25%

Pineal gland –

sleep inducing hormone melatonin

  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (neural center in hypothalamus) controls circadian clock
  • Dream theories
slide10
Classical and operant conditioning
  • Theory of mind
  • Pavlov, Watson, Garcia
  • Skinner
  • Bandura’sbobo doll
  • Skinner box (operant chamber)
  • Schedules of reinforcement
  • Interval-
  • related to time
  • Ratio-related to number of times
slide11
Atkinson-Shiffrin’s three stage memory processing model
  • Sensory, short-term, long-term
  • Hippocampus –
  • explicit memories
  • Cerebellum-
  • implicit memories
  • Encoding- effortful and automatic
  • Elizabeth Loftus-false memories
slide12
Skinner –A I R –
  • association, imitation, reinforcement
  • Chomsky-inborn universal grammar
  • Heuristics-
  • representative, availability
  • Whorf’s linguistic determinism
  • Phoneme-smallest sound unit
  • Morpheme-smallest unit that carries meaning
  • Critical period-window begins to close at age 7
slide13
Spearman-general intelligence “g”
  • Gardner- 8 intelligences
  • Sternberg-3 intelligences (cap) creative, analytic, practical
  • Binet/Simon-started intelligence movement
  • Wechsler-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-most widely used
  • Convergent –
  • single correct answer-
  • Divergent-
  • Multiple answers
slide14

Industrial organizational psychology

  • Drive reduction theory
  • Goleman’s emotional intelligence
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Task leadership and social leadership
  • Voice effect
slide15

James-Lange theory(arousal-emotion)

  • Cannon-Bard theory(arousal/emotion)
  • Schachter-Singer theory(arousal/label then emotion)
  • Zajonc-LeDoux theory-we have many emotional reactions apart from our interpretation. Two roads:
  • Fear-thalamus-amygdala-response
  • Fear-thalamus-sensory cortex-prefrontal cortex amygdala-response
slide16

Personality theories-

  • Freud, Adler, Horney, Jung
  • Projective tests
  • Eysenck –two axes-extraversion/introversion
  • Stable/unstable
  • Conscientiousness, agreeableness,
  • Neuroticism, openness, extraversion
slide17

DSM-IV-TR AND UN-DSM

  • 5 AXES: Disorder, personality disorder, medical condition, environmental problems, functioning
  • Affective(mood)
  • Depression-low serotonin
  • Mania-high serotonin
  • Schizophrenia-high dopamine
  • Positive and negative symptoms
slide18

Pinel and Dix-humane treatment

  • Regression toward the mean
  • Chart on therapy techniques
  • EMDR
  • Aaron Beck’s view of depression
  • Deinstitutionalization
slide19

Cognitive dissonance

  • Kurt Lewin-leadership styles
  • Solomon Asch-conformity
  • Milgram-obedience
  • Zimbardo-jail experiment
  • GRIT-graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction (Osgood)
  • The “sleeper effect” –negative propaganda has impact even from discreditable source.