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Identity Based  Cryptography. James Higdon, Sameer Sherwani CpSc 624/424. Overview. Type of encryption mechanisms Types of encryptions Basic Identity based encryption Advantages Disadvantages Applications. Encryption.

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Identity Based

 Cryptography

James Higdon, Sameer Sherwani

CpSc 624/424

overview
Overview
  • Type of encryption mechanisms
  • Types of encryptions
  • Basic Identity based encryption
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Applications
encryption
Encryption

 - process of transforming information(plaintext) using a cipher (algorithm) to ciphertext. 

types of cryptographic mechanisms
Types of cryptographic mechanisms
  •  Key Authentication 
    • One way hash functions: MD5, SHA
    • Digital signatures: Verify user: DSA  
  •  Key exchange
    •  key distribution: Diffi-Hellman 
  •  Key generation
    •  Block Ciphers: DES/AES; ATM, passwords
types of keys ciphers
Types of keys(ciphers)
  • Symmetric keys
  • Traditional asymmetric keys 
  • Identity-based asymmetric keys
    •  Common public-key Algorithms 
      • ( RSA, Elliptic curve, Discrete logarithm based) 
    •  Explain difference between traditional and Identity based asymmetric keys
identity based encryption ibe
Identity based Encryption(IBE)

  "identity-based"...  mainly about keys

 The major differences between an identity-based 

system and a traditional system are

  •  How to authenticate the key
  •  How to distribute the key
  •  How to use the key 
identity based encryption ibe1
Identity based Encryption(IBE)
  • A public-key encryption system in which an arbitrary string can be used as the public key.
      • Any personal information:
        • An e-mail address, a photo, and a postal address, etc
      • Any terms and conditions, such as a time etc
  • Developed by Adi Shamir in 1984
  • However, the encryption schemes were not fully used or created until 2001.
how it works
How it works
  • Private Keys are generated by a third party Private Key Generator (PKG)
  • PKG publishes a public master key and retains the private master key
  • With the correct ID, users can contact the PKG to obtain the private key
  • This way, messages may be encrypted without a prior distribution of keys between individuals 
advantages
Advantages

Reduces the complexity of the encryption process 

  • No certificates needed. A recipient's public key is derived from his identity.
  • No pre-enrollment required.
  • Keys expire, so they don't need to be revoked. In a traditional public-key system, keys must be revoked if compromised.
  • Less vulnerable to spam.
  • Enables postdating of messages for future decryption.
  • Enables automatic expiration, rendering messages unreadable after a certain date.
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Requires a centralized server. IBE's centralized approach implies that some keys must be created and held in escrow -- and are therefore at greater risk of disclosure.
  • Requires a secure channel between a sender or recipient and the IBE server for transmitting the private key.
real world application
Real-World Application
  • Voltage Security provide Identity-Based Encryption for emails
  • IBE Toolkit available to those who would like to use the encryption services