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Introducing. Public Administration. Third Edition. Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational Behavior. Jay Shaftitz & E. W. Russell. Dr. Wasim Al-Habil. Chapter Six. Organizational Behavior. Key Topics . Definition of Organization Behavior (OB)

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Third edition

Introducing

Public Administration

Third Edition

Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational Behavior

Jay Shaftitz & E. W. Russell

Dr. Wasim Al-Habil.


Chapter six

Chapter Six

Organizational Behavior


Key topics
Key Topics

  • Definition of Organization Behavior (OB)

  • Organizational Development

  • The Impact of Bureaucratic Structure on Behavior

  • Motivation Theories


Third edition

The study of organizational behavior comprises those aspects of the behavioral sciences that focus on the understanding of human behavior in organizations.”


Macgregor s assumptions about hb
MacGregor’s Assumptions about HB

  • In 1960, MacGregor’s Human Side of Enterprise was built around the following assumptions:

  • Organizations are created to serve human ends.

  • Organizations and people need each other

  • When the fit between the needs of the individual and the organization is poor, one or both will suffer.

  • A good fit between individuals and organizations benefits both because people gain meaningful and satisfying work and organizations receive the talent and energy they need to thrive.


Luddites hb
Luddites & HB

  • Luddites is originally English workers in the early 19th century who destroyed new textile machinery that was displacing them in factories; now the term, after the legendry Ned Ludd refers to anyone who sabotage hightech equipment to protect jobs.

  • Their principles of working were founded on:

  • Minimize fear of change by involving people at all levels.

  • Minimize the negative impacts of the change on groups of workers at risk.

  • Co-opt informal and formal leaders, especially those who might become antagonistic.

  • Find alternatives for employees who do not see the changes as consistent with their personal goals.


Group dynamic and ob
Group Dynamic and OB

  • Learning Curve: The time it takes to achieve optimal efficiency in performing a task. When workers repeatedly do a new task, the amount of labor per unit of output initially decreases according to pattern that can be plotted as a curve on graph.

  • Reinforcement: An inducement to perform in a particular manner. Positive reinforcement occurs when an individual receives a desired reward that is contingent upon some prescribed behavior. Negative reinforcement occurs when an individual works to avoid an undesirable outcome.

  • Turnover: The rate at which employees leave an organization – usually expressed as a percentage of all workers who resign or are fired each year.

  • Nepotism: Any practice by which officeholders award positions to members of their immediate family or friends or relatives.

  • Organization Chart: The visual representation of the structure of an organization, usually in the form of a diagram.

  • Groupthink: Blind following to a person at higher rank in work environment or organization.


Formal informal groups in ob
Formal & Informal Groups in OB

  • Formal groups: Groups are officially created by a larger organization, usually for the purpose of accomplishing tasks.

  • There are two basic types of formal groups:

  • Commanded groups are specified in a formal organization chart.

  • Task groups are formally sanctioned job-oriented units with short lives.

  • Informal groups: Groups are made up of individuals who have spontaneously developed relationships and pattern of interactions in work situations.


Organization development od
Organization Development (OD)

  • Change or Die is the fact that stands behind organizational development.

  • OD is planned organizational change as organizations exist in a dynamic environment both internally and externally to which they must respond or become ineffectual.

  • OD is not a philosophy. It is an approach or strategy for increasing organizational effectiveness.

  • As a process, it has no value biases , but it is usually associated with the idea that effectiveness is found by integrating the individual’s desire for growth with organizational goals.

  • There is no universal OD model that can easily plugged into a troubled organization.


Some od concepts
Some OD Concepts

  • Intervention: The entering of an outsider into an orgoing system of relationships, such as a n organization, to help make it perform better.

  • Process consultation: The interventionist activities of an organization development advisor.

  • Job Enlargement: Adding additional but similar duties to a job.

  • Job Enrichment: Adding differing kinds of duties so that the work is both at a higher level and more personally satisfying.

  • Psychological ownership: Emotional involvement with, and commitment to, an intangible something such as an organizational reform effort.

  • T-Group: It is a training group designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behavior, give and receive feedbacks, experiment with the new behavior, and develop everlasting awareness and acceptance of self and others.


Hawthorne studies ob
Hawthorne Studies & OB

  • Studies of Roethlisberger and Mayo (1927 - 1932) of the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago is traditionally a case study which has affected the organizational behavior.


Action plan as a tool of od
Action Plan as a tool of OD

  • Action research involves the following:

  • Collecting organizational diagnostic data through written questioners and interviews.

  • Systematically feeding back information to the organization members who provided input.

  • Discussing what the information means to members and its implications for the organization.

  • Jointly developing an improvement plan

  • Repeating all of the above as needed.


Limitations of bureaucracy ob
Limitations of Bureaucracy & OB

  • Bureaucracy has many advantages including order, predictability, stability, professionalism, and consistency but …

  • Bureaucracy lacks responsiveness to changing conditions.

  • Bureaucracy is excessive and imposes and tight control.

  • Bureaucracy has the seeds of their own incompetence (Dysfunctional).

  • Bureaucracy is impersonal and dehumanizing.

    (please, return back to the attached article about bureaucracy on my website).


What is motivation
What is Motivation?

  • Why do some companies have enthusiastic employees who work as cohesive, productive teams while other firms suffer from high rates of dissatisfaction, burnout, and turnover? The secret is motivation (Domeyer, 2001, p. 32).

  • The word “motivation” comes from the Latin root word movere, which means “to move” (Nelson, 1996, p.71).

  • Motivation is “the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals as conditioned by that effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need” (Robbins and Coulter, 1999, p. 50).

  • Motivating is the ability to get people to embrace a common purpose, to implement a vision, requiring a kind of listening, to learn what moves people and to communicate in a way that inspires people (Maccoby, 2001, p. 58).


The needs hierarchy theory
The Needs Hierarchy Theory

  • The Needs Hierarchy Theory is grounded on:

  • Physiological needs

  • Safety needs

  • Love or affiliation needs

  • Esteem needs

  • Self-actualization


Herzberg s motivation hygiene theory
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

  • Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory is that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.

  • Motivation factors include (1) responsibility, (2) achievement, (3) recognition, (4) advancement, and (5) the work itself.

  • These factors relate to the content of the job and what the employee actually does on the job.

  • Motivation factors lead to positive mental health and challenge people to grow, contribute to the work environment, and invest themselves in the organization.

  • The absence of these factors leads to the lack of satisfaction, not to dissatisfaction.


Herzberg s motivation hygiene theory1
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

  • Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory is that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.

  • job dissatisfaction occurs when the hygiene factors are either not present or not good enough. The hygiene factors include (1) company policy and administration, (2) supervision, (3) interpersonal relations with one’s supervisor, (4) working conditions,(5) salary, (6) status, and (7) security.

  • These factors relate to the context of the job and may be considered support factors. When hygiene factors are excellent, employees are not dissatisfied, and complaints about these contextual considerations are reduced.

  • When hygiene factors are poor or absent, the person complains about “poor supervision,”“poor medical benefits,” or whatever the hygiene factors is that is poor. Employees experience a deficit and are dissatisfied when the hygiene factors are not present (Nelson & Quick, p. 75).


Expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory

  • It includes variables or elements and relationships:

  • Expectancy or effort-performance linkage is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance.

  • Instrumentality or performance-reward linkage is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level is instrumental in leading to the attainment of a desired outcome.

  • Valence or attractiveness of reward is the importance that the individual places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. Valence considers both the goals and needs of the individual (Nelson & Quick, pp. 82-82).


Theory x and theory y
Theory X and Theory Y

  • Douglas McGregor, through his 1960 book The Human Side of Enterprise, talked about the Theory X and Theory Y.

  • Theory X is founded on the following assumptions:

  • The average human being has inherent dislike of work.

  • Most people must be coerced or threatened with punishment to get them work.

  • People prefer to be directed and wish to avoid responsibility.

  • Theory Y is founded on the following assumptions:

  • The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

  • A person will exercise self-direction and self-control in the services of objectives to which he is committed.

  • Avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition, and emphasis on security are consequences of experience, not inherent human characteristics.

  • The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population.


Postmodernism technocracy
Postmodernism & Technocracy

  • Postmodernism: The belief that constant change is a new fact of life for large organizations that are living on the edge, on the boundary, between order and chaos.

  • Technocracy: A contraction of “technical” and “bureaucracy,” which refers to the high-tech organizational environments of the postmodern world.


The core themes of postmodernism
The Core Themes of Postmodernism

  • William Bergquist has identified four core themes of postmodernism:

  • Objectivism versus constructivism: It assumes that there is an objective reality that can be discovered. Constructivism means that human beings construct our social realities and believes.

  • Language as a reality: Language is more than means of communicating information about reality.

  • Globalization and segmentalism: Our world has become progressively more global, while ate the same time becoming progressively more segmented and differentiated.

  • Fragmented and inconsistent images: Human beings often are tricked that they have experienced depth or virtual reality when in fact they have seen only the surface.


A feminist perspective
A Feminist Perspective

  • US Women constituted 24% of all public officials and administration in 1970.

  • US Women constituted 59% of all public officials and administration in 1990.

  • Research demonstrated that women have different styles and techniques in the field of management and administration than men.

  • At least four sets of gendered processes perpetuate the male reality of organization:

  • Gender division that produce gender pattering of jobs.

  • Creation of masculine organizational symbols and images.

  • Interaction characterized by dominance and subordination.

  • The internal mental work of individuals as they consciously construct their understandings of the organization’s gendered structure of work and demands for gender-appropriate behaviors and attitudes.