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Ch11 Sec 4. The Turning Point. Vicksburg. Vicksburg, MS last CSA port on Mississippi River Gen. Grant commands union troops in on the Mississippi Unable to capture the city. Jackson. Mid-April, 1863, Grant leaves Vicksburg and heads toward Jackson Confederate race to protect Jackson

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  • Vicksburg, MS last CSA port on Mississippi River
  • Gen. Grantcommands union troops in on the Mississippi
  • Unable to capture the city
  • Mid-April, 1863, Grant leaves Vicksburg and heads toward Jackson
  • Confederate race to protect Jackson
  • Grant gets there first, captures city and attacks Conf. army
back to vicksburg
Back to Vicksburg
  • Confederate retreat to Vicksburg
  • Grant sieges city
  • CSA surrender on July 4, 1863
  • Union controls MS river, South cut in half.
  • Shortly after Union victory at Antietam, McClelland (USA) refuses to attack
  • Lincoln replaces him with Ambrose Burnside
  • Burnside enters VA with 122,000 men
  • Lee has 79,000.
  • Meet at Fredericksburg, VA
  • Burnside orders repeated charges up a hill at Lee’s army
  • Suffers heavy casualties (12,000- more than double the Conf. Casualties)
  • Lincoln fires Burnside and replaces him with Joseph Hooker
  • Hooker’s also wanted to get the CSA out of Fredericksburg
  • Divided army and tired to circle behind Lee and attack them from the rear
  • Lee realized what Hooker was doing
  • Lee divided his army, and went to attack Hooker
  • Lee then divided again and sent Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson around to attack Hooker from the rear
  • Hooker retreated
  • That night, Jackson goes out to scout
  • Mistakenly shot by his own men
  • Chancellorsville considered to be Lee’s greatest victory, but also costly (Jackson’s death)
  • Lee now decides to invade the North
  • Enters Pennsylvania
  • Lincoln replace Hooker with George Meade
  • Meade follows Lee
  • Many Northerners want to end the war
  • Lee hopes by invading he will convince them to make peace
  • July 1, 1863- Confederate troops enter Gettysburg
  • Looking for shoes not battle
  • Encounter Union Calvary
  • Both armies rush to Gettysburg when they hear gunfire
  • CSA take town
  • Union on Cemetery Ridge
  • CSA on Seminary Ridge
  • That night, Lee plans an attack for the morning
  • James Longstreet (Lee’s 2nd in command) didn’t want to attack
  • Next day, he took all day to get ready and carry out his orders
  • Allowed Union Re-enforcements to arrive
  • As day 2 (July 2nd) continued, a gap opened in the Union line on Little Round Top (a hill on cemetery ridge)
  • Union and Conf troops rush to get to hill
  • Union get there first, force Conf to fall back
  • Day 3 (July 3)
  • Lee’s plan is to attack the Union center
  • Before attack, CSA cannons fire on Union line
  • Union fire back
  • Largest use of cannons in war
  • Union cannons stop
  • CSA think cannons are destroyed
  • They are wrong
  • Confederate attack Union center with 15,000 men
  • March across one mile of open ground
  • Union opens fire on Confederate
  • By end of the assault, about half of 15,000 men are casualties
  • Called Pickett’s Charge
  • July 4- Confederate retreat
  • Costliest battle of war
    • Union casualties- 23,000
    • Confederate casualties- 28,000

--Victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were the turning point of the war

gettysburg address
Gettysburg Address
  • November 1863
  • Lincoln goes to Gettysburg to dedicate a military cemetery
  • Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address