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POETRY TERMS. AP Literature & Composition Exam Review. Alliteration . Alliteration. Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines . Example: f ast and f urious. Assonance . Assonance.

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poetry terms

POETRY TERMS

AP Literature & Composition Exam Review

alliteration
Alliteration
  • Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines.
  • Example: fast and furious
assonance
Assonance
  • Repeated vowel sounds in words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines.
  • Example: bruise/lose
  • Example:neigh/fade
consonance
Consonance
  • Repeated consonant sounds at the ending of words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. This produces a pleasing kind of near-rhyme.
  • Example: boats into the past
  • Example: cool soul
cacophony
Cacophony
  • A discordant series of harsh, unpleasant soundshelps to convey disorder. This is often furthered by the combined effect of the meaning and the difficulty of pronunciation.
  • Example: My stick fingers click with a snicker And, chuckling, they knuckle the keys; Light-footed, my steel feelers flicker And pluck from these keys melodies. —“Player Piano,” John Updike
euphony
Euphony
  • A series of musically pleasant sounds, conveying a sense of harmony and beauty to the language.
  • Example: Than Oars divide the Ocean/ Too silver for a seam—Or Butterflies, off Banks of NoonLeap, splashlessas they swim.— “A Bird Came Down the Walk,” Emily Dickenson (last stanza)
synesthesia
Synesthesia
  • An attempt to fuse different senses by describing one kind of sense impression in words normally used to describe another.
  • Example: The sound of her voice was sweet.
  • Example: a loud aroma, a velvety smile
allusion
Allusion
  • A brief reference to some person, historical event, work of art, or Biblical or mythological situation or character.
apostrophe
Apostrophe
  • Speaking directly to a real or imagined listener or inanimate object; addressing that person or thing by name.
  • Example: O Captain! My Captain! our fearful trip is done...
connotation
Connotation
  • The emotional, psychological or social overtones of a word; its implications and associations apart from its literal meaning. Often, this is what distinguishes the precisely correct word from one that is merely acceptable.
denotation
Denotation
  • The dictionary definition of a word; its literal meaning apart from any associations or connotations.
euphemism
Euphemism
  • An understatement, used to lessen the effect of a statement; substituting something innocuous for something that might be offensive or hurtful.
  • Example: She is at rest. (meaning, she’s dead)
metonymy
Metonymy
  • A figure of speech in which a person, place, or thing is referred to by something closely associated with it.
  • Example: The White House stated today that...
  • Example:The Crown reported today that...
  • Example: Wall St. walked off with most of our savings.
oxymoron
Oxymoron
  • A combination of two words that appear to contradict each other.
  • Example: a pointless point of view; bittersweet
paradox
Paradox
  • A statement in which a seeming contradiction may reveal an unexpected truth.
  • Example: The faster I go the more behind I get.
synecdoche
Synecdoche
  • Indicating a person, object, etc. by letting only a certain part represent the whole.
  • Example: All hands on deck.
  • Example: using “wheels” to mean a car
  • Example: referring to violins, violas, cellos, and basses as “the strings”
enjambment
Enjambment
  • The continuation of the logical sense — and therefore the grammatical construction — beyond the end of a line of poetry. This is sometimes done with the title, which in effect becomes the first line of the poem.
slide34

End Rhyme

V.

  • Internal Rhyme
end rhyme v internal rhyme
End Rhyme v. Internal Rhyme
  • End Rhyme – rhyme that occurs at the end of lines of poetry
    • Example:

Her voice, soft and lovely when she sings,

Came to me last night in a dream.

In my head her voice still rings,

How pleasant last night must seem.

  • Internal Rhyme – a rhyme occurring within a line of poetry
    • Example: Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary…
open form
Open Form
  • Poetic form free from regularity and consistency in elements such as rhyme, line length, and metrical form
    • Free Verse – lines with no prescribed pattern or structure – poet determines all the variables as seems appropriate for each poem
closed form
Closed Form
  • poetic form subject to a fixed structure and pattern
slide41

Blank Verse

  • unrhymed iambic pentameter
slide42

Couplet

V.

  • Heroic Couplet
couplet v heroic couplet
Couplet v. Heroic Couplet
  • Couplet: a pair of lines, usually rhymed; this is the shortest stanza
  • Heroic Couplet: a pair of rhymed lines in iambic pentameter
stanza
Stanza
  • group of lines in the formal pattern of a poem
  • Types of stanzas include:
    • Couplet – two rhymed lines, shortest stanza
    • Tercet – three lines, usually with the same rhyme
    • Quatrain – four lines
    • Cinquain – five lines
    • Sestet – six lines
    • Octave – eight lines
elegy
Elegy
  • a formal poem focusing on death or mortality, usually beginning with the recent death of a particular person
idyll
Idyll
  • a short, descriptive narrative, usually a poem, about an idealized rural life
  • also called a pastoral
lyric poetry
Lyric Poetry
  • Melodious, imaginative, and subjective poetry that is usually short and personal, expressingthe thoughts and feelings of a single speaker rather than telling a story
slide53
Ode
  • A lyric poem, usually serious and elevated in tone, often written to praise someone or something
sonnet
Sonnet
  • a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter with a prescribed rhyme scheme; its subject was traditionally love
  • Three variations are found frequently in English, although others are occasionally seen.
shakespearean sonnet
Shakespearean Sonnet
  • a style of sonnet used by Shakespeare with a rhyme scheme of ababcdcdefefgg
italian petrarchan sonnet
Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet
  • a form of sonnet made popular by Petrarch with a rhyme scheme of abbaabbacdecde(or cdcdcd)
spenserian sonnet
Spenserian Sonnet
  • a variant of the Shakespearean form in which the quatrains are linked with a chain or interlocked rhyme scheme: ababbcbccdcdee
villanelle
Villanelle
  • poem of 19 lines
  • 5 tercets(3-line stanzas)followed by a quatrain
  • 1st line of the 1st tercet is repeated as the last line of the 2nd & 4thtercets
  • 3rd line of the 1sttercet is repeated as the last line of the 3rd & 5thtercets
  • 2 refrain lines are repeated as a couplet in the last 2 lines of the quatrain
  • rhyme scheme is aba aba aba aba aba abaa
  • gradually builds in tone and intensity