Sejarah dan Perkembangan China Perantauan di beberapa negara Amerika, Eropa dan AfrikaPertemuan 13 Matakuliah : E1052/Penelitian China Perantauan Tahun : 2007/2008
Chinese American 美籍華人 or 華裔美國人 Chinatown San Francisco. Total population 3,336,966 (1.2% of the US population) Regions with significant populations California, Hawaii, Northeast United States, Washington, Western United States Languages American English, Chinese: Mandarin, Cantonese, Taishanese, Fujianese, Hakka, Shanghainese (Wu) Religions Buddhism, Christianity, Daoism, Chinese folk religion San Francisco Chinatown.
HISTORY : • Chinese Americans (Chinese language: 美籍華人 or 華裔美國人) are Americans of Chinese descent. • Chinese Americans constitute one group of Overseas Chinese and are a subgroup of Asian Americans. • The first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820 according to U.S. government records. • Fewer than 1,000 arrived before the 1848 California Gold Rush which drew the first significant number of laborers from China who performed menial work for the gold prospectors. There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, and 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast. Most of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from the Guangdong province. • As a whole, Chinese American populations continue to grow at a rapid rate due to immigration. However, they also on average have birth rates lower than those of White Americans, and as such their population is aging relatively quickly. • In recent years, adoption of young children, especially girls, from China has also brought a boost to the numbers of Chinese Americans, although most of the adoptions appear to have been done by white parents.
Chinese Americans are divided among many subgroups based on factors such as a generation, place of origin, socio-economic level, and do not have uniform attitudes about the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, the United States, or Chinese nationalism, with attitudes varying widely between active support, hostility, or indifference. • Different subgroups of Chinese Americans also have radically different and sometimes very conflicting political priorities and goals. It is for this reason that Chinese Americans do not have any unified political groups or any unified political viewpoints.
American-born Chinese An American-born Chinese or "ABC" is a person born in the United States of Chinese ethnic descent, a category of Chinese American. Many, but not all, are second-generation (parents who are naturalized U.S. citizens) born after the U.S. Immigration Act of 1965 relaxed limits on immigration from East Asia. CULTURE The connection ABCs have with the Chinese culture is varied, depending very much on the area where they live. • The coastal areas on both sides of the United States tend to have strong Chinese communities, due to large Chinese populations and continuing immigration from Chinese speaking countries, allowing ABCs to maintain stronger connection with Chinese culture. • In middle America, where Chinese communities are more sporadic, the ABCs assimilate into the mainstream more quickly. • Assimilated latter generation Chinese Americans may often adopt a broader pan-Asian American identity. The large Asian American population in Hawaii is an example of such a community.
ABCs were found to assimilate as rapidly into the American culture as other previous generation immigrants, such as the Irish and the Italians. • They also were less likely to speak Chinese. In some first-generation households, ABCs may be able to speak the Chinese dialect of their parents, but may not know how to read or write Chinese. • The majority of American-born Chinese are native English speakers, with some bilingual to varying degrees with Chinese. Usually, only the children of immigrants speak Chinese daily at home. Some parents have taken steps to ensure their children retain ties to their heritage, such as sending them to Chinese school. • There are few American-born Chinese actresses who become famous for their work. Examples include and Lucy Liu ( who starred in the Charlie's Angels movies and the television series Ally McBeal)
British Chinese英國華僑 • Total population 247,403 (0.4% of the United Kingdom population) • Regions with significant populations London, Manchester, Birmingham, Brighton, Liverpool, Glasgow • Languages : British English, Chinese (mainly regional dialects including Cantonese, Hakka and others; also Mandarin) • Religions : Non-religious, Buddhism, Christianity, others • Related ethnic groups : Mainland Chinese, Overseas Chinese
The British Chinese community is thought to be the oldest Chinese community in Europe, if not the oldest in Western Europe, with the first Chinese coming from the ports of Tianjin and Shanghai in the early 19th century. • Today, most of the British Chinese are people or are descended from people who were themselves overseas Chinese when they entered the United Kingdom. The majority are from former British colonies, such as Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and also other countries such as Vietnam. People from mainland China and Taiwan and their descendants constitute a relatively small proportion of the British Chinese community.
British Chinese, also Chinese British, Chinese Britons or British-born Chinese, are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United Kingdom. They are part of the Chinese diaspora, or overseas Chinese. • The British Chinese community is thought to be the oldest Chinese community in Europe, if not the oldest in Western Europe, with the first Chinese coming from the ports of Tianjin and Shanghai in the early 19th century. • Today, most of the British Chinese are people or are descended from people who were themselves overseas Chinese when they entered the United Kingdom. The majority are from former British colonies, such as Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and also other countries such as Vietnam. People from mainland China and Taiwan and their descendants constitute a relatively small proportion of the British Chinese community.
History 19th century • The first settlement of Chinese people in the United Kingdom dates from the early 19th century. In particular were port cities such as Liverpool and London; particularly the Limehouse area in East London, where the first Chinatown was established in Britain and Europe. 20th century • The largest wave of Chinese immigration took place during the 1950s and 1960s and consisted predominantly of male agricultural workers from the New Territories in Hong Kong. This also included immigration, indirectly via Hong Kong, from the surrounding Guangdong province in China. The majority of these men were employed in the then growing Chinese catering industry. Chinese run laundry businesses were the other major source of employment for Chinese people in the UK, but it was a declining industry and Chinese run laundries are non-existent today. • By 2004, according to official figures, just under half of Chinese men and 40% of Chinese women in employment worked in the distribution, hotel and restaurant industry. • Hong Kong territory's handover to China in 1997. The United Kingdom made provision to grant citizenship to 50,000 families, whose presence was important to the future of Hong Kong, under the British Nationality Act (Hong Kong) 1990.
Social life, Health and welfare • The British Chinese have some of the highest inter-ethnic marriage rates in the country compared to other ethnic minority groups (and including the white population). According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 30% of Chinese women intermarried, a figure twice that for Chinese men (15%). • Chinese men and women had the lowest rates of long-term illness or disability which restricts daily activities. • A British Chinese person was also more likely to possess a universitydegree, or hold a job in a professional class, than the average Briton, but conversely, British Chinese people had the highest proportion with no qualifications (20%), and twice the unemployment rate (10%) compared to white Britons (5%). • Chinese men also have the highest rate of working-age economic inactivity of all males at 37%, twice the rate for white British men. The vast majority of economically inactive Chinese men are students. • The Chinese are more likely to be self-employed (16%) than any other ethnic group except for Pakistanis. • The British Chinese are most likely to be employed in managerial and professional occupations (38 percent), compared with 27% for white Britons.
Chinese people in Russia • Total population 34,577 (2002) • Regions with significant populations Moscow, Russian Far East • Languages Chinese, Russian • Religions Not known • Related ethnic groups Overseas Chinese
History • Chinese settlement in what is now the Russian Far East is believed to have begun as early as the 7th century A.D.; • however, under the 1860 Convention of Peking, China's Qing Dynasty ceded these eastern territories, then known as East Tartary, to Russia. • Large-scale Chinese immigration to territory actually under the control of the Russian Empire did not begin until the late 19th century. From 1878 until the early 1880s, thousands of Hui Chinese escaped from Xinjiang, Gansu, and Ningxia over the Tian Shan Mountains to Central Asia, fleeing persecution in the aftermath of the Hui Minorities' War; they became known as the Dungans. Separately, other groups of migrants, mostly Han Chinese, went to the Russian Far East; • the Russian Empire Census of 1897 showed a total of 57,459 Chinese speakers (47431 male and 10,028 female); 42,823 (74.5%) lived in the Primorye region alone.
Chinese and ethnic Koreans living in the Russian Far East were deported to other areas of Russia in 1937 for fear that their communities could be infiltrated by Japanese spies. • Starting from the time of Russia's 1917 October Revolution and continuing up until the 1950s-1960s Sino-Soviet split, many aspiring Chinese Communists went to study in Moscow, including Liu Shaoqi, future President of the People's Republic of China, and Chiang Ching-kuo, the son of Chiang Kai-shek. There was a great deal of factional infighting among them; they were in general described as being heavily influenced by Trotskyism. • The most recent wave of immigration traces its origin back to 1982, when Hu Yaobang visited Harbin and approved the resumption of cross-border trade; • immigration remained sluggish until 1988, when China and the Soviet Union signed a visa-free tourism agreement. However, visa-free travel was terminated only six years later.
Russian perceptions • The expanding Chinese presence in the area has led to yellow peril-style fears of Chinese irredentism. • Russian newspapers publish fantastic estimates of between two and five million Chinese migrants in the Russian Far East, and predict that half of the population of Russia would be Chinese by 2050. • Russians typically believe that Chinese come to Russia with the aim of permanent settlement, and even Vladimir Putin was quoted as saying "If we do not take practical steps to advance the Far East soon, after a few decades, the Russian population will be speaking Chinese, Japanese, and Korean." • Russians perceive hostile intent in the Chinese practise of using different names for local cities, such as Hǎishēnwǎi for Vladivostok , and a widespread folk belief states that the Chinese migrants remember the exact locations of their ancestors' ginseng patches, and seek to reclaim them. • The xenophobia against Chinese and exaggerated concerns over the Chinese influx and are described as being less prevalent in the Russian Far East, where most of the Chinese shuttle trade is actually occurring, than in European Russia
South African Chinese South African Chinese100,000 (2003) 0.2% of local population 0.3% of Global Overseas Chinese population HISTORY • The earliest Chinese arrived in South Africa in 1904 to work in the gold mines of the Witwatersrand (now Gauteng). • Most of them were repatriated by 1910, because of strong white opposition to their presence. Some stayed, mainly around Johannesburg, and Port Elizabeth, where South Africa's only Chinese township was located. • As with other non-white South Africans, the Chinese suffered from discrimination during apartheid, and were classified as coloureds.
With the establishment of ties between apartheid South Africa and the Republic of China (Taiwan), Taiwanese Chinese started migrating to South Africa from the late 1970s onwards. This created an odd situation whereby South African mainland Chinese continued to be classified as coloureds, whereas the Taiwanese were considered "honorary whites". • The arrival of the Taiwanese resulted in a surge of the Chinese population, which climbed from around 10,000 in the early 1980s to at least 20,000 in the early 1990s. Many Taiwanese were entrepreneurs who set up small companies, particularly in the textile sector, across South Africa. Post-Apartheid • With the end of apartheid, more Chinese from mainland China started immigrating into South Africa, increasing the Chinese population in South Africa to possibly 100,000, including illegal immigrants. • In Johannesburg, in particular, a new Chinatown has emerged in the eastern suburbs of Cyrildene and Bruma Lake, replacing the declining one in the city centre. A Chinese housing development has also been established in the small town of Bronkhorstspruit, east of Pretoria.