different kinds of development by vertebrates after birth n.
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Different kinds of development by vertebrates after birth. The two kinds of developmental strategies for birds after birth, is mainly linked to nest building , feeding and protecting from predators in their environment. Altricial development (‘ requiring nourishment’)

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different kinds of development by vertebrates after birth

Different kinds of development by vertebrates after birth

The two kinds of developmental strategies for birds after birth, is mainly linked to nest building, feeding and protecting from predators in their environment.

Altricial development (‘requiring nourishment’)

Precocial development

altricial development
Altricial development
  • Altricial refers to species whose newly-hatched or -born youngs are helpless and require care for a specific amount of time. They …
  • are relatively immobile,
  • lack hair or feathers,
  • are not able to obtain food on their own,
  • must be cared for by adults,
  • have closed eyes which are common, though not always the case.
  • They cannot leave the nest and are fed by their parents until their body is covered in feathers and their muscles have strengthened.
  • They are unable to regulate their own body temperature.
  • (kept warm by a parent)
altricial development cont

Altricialdevelopment (cont.)

Their nest are above the ground in trees or on poles to protect them from predators.

Amongst birds, for example, 

woodpeckers, owls, pigeons, etc.

Among mammals, most rodents (rat, mouse, marmot) are altricial. 

Cats, dogs, humans are

some of the best-known

altricialorganisms.

advantage of altricial development

Advantage of altricial development

With rich diet provided by parents the initial small brains developed into large adults brains – leads to greater adaptability and intelligence

disadvantage of altricial development

Disadvantage of altricial development

More demanding on parents (more energy needed) for protection and feeding

Parents need to teach them to fly

precocial development

Precocial development

Precocialrefers to species in which the young

are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching.

They …

are able to move around soon after hatching,

are covered with down/feathers,

can leave the nest within two days,

are able to regulate their own body temperature,

Make their nests on the ground

Examples: guinea fowl, geese, ducks,

chickens, cranes, etc.

advantage of precocial development
Advantage of precocial development
  • Hatchings are able to avoid predation to some extent,
  • They can see and run around,
  • Can feed themselves,
  • Less demanding on female/

parents once hatched – they are independent

  • Mother stays nearby to protect them and teach them
disadvantage of precocial development
Disadvantage of precocial development
  • Hatchlings have relatively large brains and their brain size does not increase much
  • Demanding on female to produce lots of yolk so that embryo can develop into more mature chicks