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The Atmosphere. Atmosphere. Layer of gasses surrounding a planet Not all planets have an atmosphere Not all planets have atmospheres like Earth’s Makes conditions on Earth suitable for life. Earth’s Atmospheric Composition. Gasses 78% Nitrogen (N 2 ) 21% Oxygen (O 2 ) 1% Other gasses

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atmosphere
Atmosphere
  • Layer of gasses surrounding a planet
    • Not all planets have an atmosphere
    • Not all planets have atmospheres like Earth’s
  • Makes conditions on Earth suitable for life
earth s atmospheric composition
Earth’s Atmospheric Composition
  • Gasses
    • 78% Nitrogen (N2)
    • 21% Oxygen (O2)
    • 1% Other gasses
  • Water Vapor (H2O)
  • Particulates
    • Liquids
    • Solids
particulates
Particulates
  • Natural Sources
    • Mold
    • Pollen
    • Salt
    • Dust
    • Volcanic Ash
  • Human Caused
    • Dust
    • Ash (Carbon)
    • Soot (Carbon)
    • Pollution
air pollution
Air Pollution
  • Harmful substances in the air
  • Most from burning fossil fuels (fuels from once living things)
    • Oil, coal,
  • Chemical aerosols
types of air pollution
Types of Air Pollution
  • Smog
    • Photochemical – Mix of ozone (O3) and other chemicals
  • Acid Rain
    • Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Nitric acid (HNO3)
    • Sulfur oxides (SOx) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
    • pH normal rain = 5.6
  • Inversion layer
    • Warm air traps cooler air keeping pollutants concentrated
acid rain formation
Acid Rain Formation

physicalgeography.net

thermal inversion
Thermal Inversion

globalchange.umich.edu

what can be done to reduce air pollution
What can be done to reduce air pollution?
  • Laws reducing emissions
    • Factories
    • Cars
  • What you can do
    • Drive less
    • Buy less
    • Buy local
air pressure
Air Pressure
  • Pressure = Force (Newtons) X Area (m2 or cm2)
  • Air has mass
    • Affected by gravity
  • Measured with barometer
  • Units
    • mm (in) of Hg (mercury)
    • Millibars
      • 1 in Hg = 33.87 millibars

ems.psu.edu

globalchange.umich.edu

altitude affect on atmosphere
Altitude Affect on Atmosphere
  • Lower air pressure at higher altitude
    • Water boils at lower temperature at higher altitude
  • Lower air pressure lower air density
    • Less particles per volume
  • Why do athletes train at high altitudes?
    • More red blood cells to carry fewer oxygen atoms
  • How does altitude affect gravity?
    • Gravity decreases with altitude (slightly)
layers of the atmosphere
Layers of the Atmosphere
  • Troposhpere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Theremosphere
    • Ionosphere
    • Exoshpere

Closest

Farthest

troposphere
Troposphere
  • Tropo = turning or changing
  • 16 km thick at equator 9 km thick at poles
  • Temp changes -6.5°C for every 1 km up
  • Top layer - 60°C
  • Weather happens in this layer
stratosphere
Stratosphere
  • Strato from stratum = layer or spreading out
  • ~ 15 km – 50 km above sea level
  • Lower layer ~ 60°C, upper layer warmer
  • Upper layer has ozone layer (O3)
    • Blocks UV radiation and absorbs energy
    • The reason upper layer is warmer
mesosphere
Mesosphere
  • Meso = middle
  • 50 km – 80 km above sea level
  • ~ - 90°C
  • Protects us from meteoroids
thermosphere
Thermosphere
  • Thermo = heat
  • 80 km – no outer limit
  • .001% as dense as air at sea level
  • 1,800°C
    • N2 and O2 absorb solar (Electromagnetic) energy
    • Transform solar to thermal energy to heat thermosphere
ionosphere
Ionosphere
  • Iono = of ions
  • 80 km – 550 km
  • Northern and Southern lights
    • Aurora borealis and aurora australis
  • Suns energy creates ions (charged particles)
  • Radio waves bounce off ionosphere
exosphere
Exosphere
  • Exo = outer
  • 550 km – 1000’s km’s
  • Orbit of some communication satellites
    • TV, phone, spy
the 4 major spheres of earth
The 4 Major Spheres of Earth
  • Atmosphere
    • Air
  • Hydrosphere
    • Water
  • Biosphere
    • Life
  • Lithosphere
    • Solid