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THE THREE Appeals: FUNDAMENTALS OF PERSUADING AN AUDIENCE. What every writer NEEDS TO KNOW TO ABOUT ARGUING WELL . HISTORY: the wisdom of the ancients. Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher, developed the theory of how arguments are constructed that is still used today.
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What every writer NEEDS TO KNOW TO ABOUT ARGUING WELL
Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher,
developed the theory of how arguments
are constructed that is still used today.
Aristotle was a student of Plato and
teacher of Alexander the Great.
He said that the goal of persuasion is to…
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Persuasion is not about showing that others’ arguments are stupid or wrong but rather that your argument is stronger.
Check out this introductory video
“Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, Logos”
Appeal to the mind; used to make readers think; use of reason
Comes from Greek word meaning “divine words”—the words of God. Literally means “logic.”
a syllogism will determine truth and fact
Major premise: All books from that store are new.
Minor premise: These books are from that store.Conclusion: Therefore, these books are new.
an enthymemewill show probability and implication
Major premise: People who lie cannot be trusted
Minor premise: This man lied to me.
Conclusion: This man is not to be trusted.
Here, the conclusion may not necessarily be true—one lie does not always make a person completely untrustworthy.
facts, case studies, statistics, experiments, analogies, anecdotes, illustrations, examples, testimony, definitions, quotations, citations, authorities/experts, informed opinions, common beliefs, ideas & feelings
Which kind of logos is used in each example?
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
Idea: Students should be allowed to
use cell phones during school hours.
list specific evidence to support idea
Appeal to emotion; used to move readers, hopefully into action
Comes from Greek words meaning “suffering,” “pitiable,” “sad”; pathos can be humor too
Used to excite, arouse, and/or interest an audience
A powerful appeal that must be used appropriately
Emotions are powerful and can be very convincing. However, emotion can also cloud people’s judgment and overthrow logic.
appeals to emotion must have relevance
appeals to emotion must be appropriate
appeals to emotion must be justifiable
appeals to emotion must be made honestly
Emotions are dangerous and used in ways that are unfair and divert the attention of the audience inappropriately.
appeals to emotion can manipulate
appeals to emotion can overthrow logic
therefore, use pathos with care and caution
vivid descriptions, loaded language, connotative meanings, examples, stories, narrative, emotional word choices, figurative language (metaphors & similes), references to common morals, beliefs, and/or ideas
affection, anger, contempt, delight, disgust, despair, embarrassment, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, hope, horror, humiliation, humor, jealously, joy, love, loyalty, passion, pity, pride, joy, remorse, ridicule, sadness, shame, shock, shyness, sorrow, vengeance
Responsible or irresponsible use?
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
Idea: Being an international student
list evidence to support idea AND
the emotion it would appeal to.
Who is that? She must be thinking very, very hard about pathos….
Appeal of ethics; refers to the writer’s credibility and character
Comes from Greek word meaning “image”—the writer’s image
Indicates writer’s reliability, competence, and ethics
Used to gain or build readers’ trust & confidence in the writer
depends of reputation
what people know and say about him/her
often but not always based in reality
references to the past & present
involvements, affiliations, advocacy,
accomplishments, successes, examples of helping others,
and positive highlights of past actions
expertise/authority & how these are portrayed
confidence, reasons why others respect & admire; interest in topic
education, experience, positionsheld,
publications, research/studies, awards,
respect for readers: accuracy & complete explanations,
common ground with readers: morals, values, beliefs,
appropriate use of logos and pathos, recognizes counterarguments
logically organized, reader-friendly & error-free writing
Ethos is presented through references to writer’s reliability & competence as well as the writer’s language use & style:
audience-appropriate language, vocabulary, tone
references to education, experience, accomplishments
complete & accurate explanations
sound use of logos; appropriate use of pathos
morals, values, beliefs held in common with audience
knowledge of subject; fairness & recognition of opposition
organized, articulate argument
Examples of the “image” a writer may present in an argument:
compassion, courage, credibility,
decency, dedication, dignity,
enthusiasm, goodwill, honesty, honor,
idealism, intelligence, kindness, morality, nobility, patriotism, resolve, respect, responsibility,
sincerity, strength, trustworthiness, valor, vigor, wisdom, friendliness, concern,
indifference, apathy, arrogance, conceit
Using laughter to touch readers’ hearts, make them think, inspire respect for the writer by delighting & surprising readers, employ ridicule & irony to highlight truth
Using humor can be difficult & risky
What do these passages convey about the writer?
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
Idea: Studying in another language is
what could you (the writer) include
to give readers a sense of your
character and credibility?
These are noteworthy appeals that may be used along with one or more main appeals, depending on how they are used.
Appeal of timeliness; emphasizes significance of moments in time
Used to convey urgency of a problem & use the past to predict future consequences
Argument Development: problem, solution, justification
Significance of problem, effectiveness of solution, counterproposals
Appeal to tradition; emphasizes whether violating tradition is appropriate or inappropriate
Used to appeal to readers’ culture
Types of Evidence:
proverbs, beliefs, figures, symbols, practices
Appeal of culture; emphasizes shared cultural beliefs & practices
Used to allow the writer to “identify with” readers by emphasizing what the have in common and their similarities
Used to convince an audience to come to the same conclusion as the writer
Idea: The people of my country must accept that
globalization makes change is necessary.
brainstorm one supporting example of each appeal.
Arguments always use all 3 main appeals,
though not they are rarely used evenly
The writer may rely heavily on one appeal,
but an argument needs all 3 to be effective
Appeals often overlap; some sentences, sections, or elements demonstrate more than one appeal, even all 3
Kairos, mythos, or nomos may also be used with a main appeal