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THE THREE Appeals: FUNDAMENTALS OF PERSUADING AN AUDIENCE. What every writer NEEDS TO KNOW TO ABOUT ARGUING WELL . HISTORY: the wisdom of the ancients. Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher, developed the theory of how arguments are constructed that is still used today.

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the three appeals fundamentals of persuading an audience

THE THREE Appeals:FUNDAMENTALS OF PERSUADING AN AUDIENCE

What every writer NEEDS TO KNOW TO ABOUT ARGUING WELL

history the wisdom of the ancients
HISTORY: the wisdom of the ancients

Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher,

developed the theory of how arguments

are constructed that is still used today.

Aristotle was a student of Plato and

teacher of Alexander the Great.

He said that the goal of persuasion is to…

  • Convince an audience that your point is valid
  • Or that your point is more valid than another’s

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

persuasion introduction
Persuasion: introduction

Persuasion is not about showing that others’ arguments are stupid or wrong but rather that your argument is stronger.

Check out this introductory video

“Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, Logos”

http://teachertube.com/

definition rhetoric
DEFINITION: rhetoric
  • RHETORIC (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition).
  • According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion."
  • Aristotle described three main forms of rhetoric: LOGOS, PATHOS, and ETHOS.
definition logos
DEFINITION: logos

Appeal to the mind; used to make readers think; use of reason

Comes from Greek word meaning “divine words”—the words of God. Literally means “logic.”

  • Used to create rational explanations that make sense
  • Used to provide specific, demonstrable evidence that is either factual or probable
1 an argument that makes sense
1. An argument that makes sense

a syllogism will determine truth and fact

Major premise: All books from that store are new.

Minor premise: These books are from that store.Conclusion: Therefore, these books are new.

an enthymemewill show probability and implication

Major premise: People who lie cannot be trusted

Minor premise: This man lied to me.

Conclusion: This man is not to be trusted.

Here, the conclusion may not necessarily be true—one lie does not always make a person completely untrustworthy.

2 logical evidence
2. Logical evidence

facts, case studies, statistics, experiments, analogies, anecdotes, illustrations, examples, testimony, definitions, quotations, citations, authorities/experts, informed opinions, common beliefs, ideas & feelings

examples of logos
EXAMPLES OF LOGOS

Which kind of logos is used in each example?

  • Pesticides contain deadly particles that destroy the nervous system, as reported by the EPA and various studies conducted by researchers.
  • Pesticides are sprayed around the school and community, filling the air that the kids breath with dangerous, harmful chemicals.
analyzing logos
Analyzing logos

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:

  • Where does the writer use reasons that make sense?
  • Is the writer’s thesis reasonable and worth considering?
  • What conclusions or answers does the writer provide to questions and problems?
  • Is the writer’s supporting evidence clear, specific, and convincing?
  • Does the writer use accurate evidence?
  • Does the writer provide sources/citations?
practice brainstorming logos
Practice: brainstorming logos

Idea: Students should be allowed to

use cell phones during school hours.

list specific evidence to support idea

definitions pathos
DEFINITIONS: pathos

Appeal to emotion; used to move readers, hopefully into action

Comes from Greek words meaning “suffering,” “pitiable,” “sad”; pathos can be humor too

Used to excite, arouse, and/or interest an audience

A powerful appeal that must be used appropriately

1 using pathos responsibly
1. Using pathos RESPONSIBLY

Emotions are powerful and can be very convincing. However, emotion can also cloud people’s judgment and overthrow logic.

appeals to emotion must have relevance

appeals to emotion must be appropriate

appeals to emotion must be justifiable

appeals to emotion must be made honestly

2 using pathos irresponsibly
2. Using pathos IRRESPONSIBLY

Emotions are dangerous and used in ways that are unfair and divert the attention of the audience inappropriately.

appeals to emotion can manipulate

appeals to emotion can overthrow logic

therefore, use pathos with care and caution

pathetic evidence
Pathetic evidence

vivid descriptions, loaded language, connotative meanings, examples, stories, narrative, emotional word choices, figurative language (metaphors & similes), references to common morals, beliefs, and/or ideas

commonly targeted emotions
Commonly targeted Emotions

affection, anger, contempt, delight, disgust, despair, embarrassment, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, hope, horror, humiliation, humor, jealously, joy, love, loyalty, passion, pity, pride, joy, remorse, ridicule, sadness, shame, shock, shyness, sorrow, vengeance

examples of pathos
EXAMPLES OF pathos

Responsible or irresponsible use?

  • Obama knows a lot about Muslims because he secretly is one, making him the most dangerous man in America.
  • Knowing the warning signs of cancer couldsave you from suffering the loss of someone you love, like I did.
analyzing pathos
Analyzing pathos

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:

  • Does the writer use vivid description, examples, personal stories, or shocking facts to get a response from readers?
  • What emotions do you think the writer is trying to rouse: sorrow, fear, guild, hope…?
  • Is pathos used appropriately and relevant?
  • Does the writer seem sincere, fake…?
  • How does the writer’s appeal to emotion reinforce his or her appeal to reason?
practice brainstorming pathos
Practice: brainstorming pathos

Idea: Being an international student

is challenging.

list evidence to support idea AND

the emotion it would appeal to.

Who is that? She must be thinking very, very hard about pathos….

definition ethos
DEFINITION: ethos

Appeal of ethics; refers to the writer’s credibility and character

Comes from Greek word meaning “image”—the writer’s image

Indicates writer’s reliability, competence, and ethics

Used to gain or build readers’ trust & confidence in the writer

the writer s character
The writer’s Character

depends of reputation

personal history/past

what people know and say about him/her

often but not always based in reality

references to the past & present

involvements, affiliations, advocacy,

accomplishments, successes, examples of helping others,

and positive highlights of past actions

the writer s credibility
The Writer’s CREDIBILITY

expertise/authority & how these are portrayed

confidence, reasons why others respect & admire; interest in topic

education, experience, positionsheld,

publications, research/studies, awards,

respect for readers: accuracy & complete explanations,

common ground with readers: morals, values, beliefs,

appropriate use of logos and pathos, recognizes counterarguments

logically organized, reader-friendly & error-free writing

ethical evidence
Ethical evidence

Ethos is presented through references to writer’s reliability & competence as well as the writer’s language use & style:

audience-appropriate language, vocabulary, tone

references to education, experience, accomplishments

complete & accurate explanations

sound use of logos; appropriate use of pathos

morals, values, beliefs held in common with audience

knowledge of subject; fairness & recognition of opposition

organized, articulate argument

attributes of ethos
Attributes of ethos

Examples of the “image” a writer may present in an argument:

compassion, courage, credibility,

decency, dedication, dignity,

enthusiasm, goodwill, honesty, honor,

idealism, intelligence, kindness, morality, nobility, patriotism, resolve, respect, responsibility,

sincerity, strength, trustworthiness, valor, vigor, wisdom, friendliness, concern,

indifference, apathy, arrogance, conceit

humor as pathos
Humor as pathos

Using laughter to touch readers’ hearts, make them think, inspire respect for the writer by delighting & surprising readers, employ ridicule & irony to highlight truth

Using humor can be difficult & risky

examples of ethos
EXAMPLES OF ethos

What do these passages convey about the writer?

  • Good decisions cannot be made when knowledge is ignored and understanding is incomplete. We must realize that educating young Americans about the Muslim world is the only intelligent option we have.
  • For 18 years, I have worked at the state prison where about 95% of inmates are minorities. This has clearly proven to me that minorities are a negative element of America’s population and society.
analyzing ethos
Analyzing ethos

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:

  • What does/doesn’t make you think the writer is trustworthy, fair, and credible?
  • What authority does the writer have on the subject? What experience does he/she have with the subject?
  • What is the writer’s tone (attitude) toward the subjectand audience?
  • What morals, values, and beliefs does the writer seem to share with the audience?
  • How does the writer’s character reinforce his or her appeals to reason and to emotion?
  • Has the writer organized and edited the argument well? Does he/she explain what is necessary?
practice brainstorming ethos
Practice: brainstorming ethos

Idea: Studying in another language is

very challenging.

what could you (the writer) include

to give readers a sense of your

character and credibility?

other appeals
OTHER APPEALS

These are noteworthy appeals that may be used along with one or more main appeals, depending on how they are used.

Kairos

Nomos

Mythos

definition kairos
DEFINITION: kairos

Appeal of timeliness; emphasizes significance of moments in time

Used to convey urgency of a problem & use the past to predict future consequences

Argument Development: problem, solution, justification

Specific considerations:

Significance of problem, effectiveness of solution, counterproposals

definition mythos
DEFINITION: mythos

Appeal to tradition; emphasizes whether violating tradition is appropriate or inappropriate

Used to appeal to readers’ culture

Types of Evidence:

proverbs, beliefs, figures, symbols, practices

definition nomos
DEFINITION: nomos

Appeal of culture; emphasizes shared cultural beliefs & practices

Used to allow the writer to “identify with” readers by emphasizing what the have in common and their similarities

Used to convince an audience to come to the same conclusion as the writer

practice kairos mythos nomos
Practice: kairos, mythos, nomos

Idea: The people of my country must accept that

globalization makes change is necessary.

brainstorm one supporting example of each appeal.

appeals are never used alone
appeals are never used alone…

Arguments always use all 3 main appeals,

though not they are rarely used evenly

The writer may rely heavily on one appeal,

but an argument needs all 3 to be effective

Appeals often overlap; some sentences, sections, or elements demonstrate more than one appeal, even all 3

Kairos, mythos, or nomos may also be used with a main appeal

conclusion
conclusion

QUIZ TIME!

http://www.gotoquiz.com/persuasive_appeals