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Guava. Nutritional Aspects and General Health Benefits of Genus Psidium. A PowerPoint Presentation by: Nick Noble Jose Luis Perez & Prerna Bhargava. General Nutritional Profile & Cultivation Considerations. Presented by Nick Noble. The Fruit. Genus Psidium Family Myrtaceae

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  1. Guava Nutritional Aspects and General Health Benefits of Genus Psidium A PowerPoint Presentation by: Nick Noble Jose Luis Perez & PrernaBhargava

  2. General Nutritional Profile & Cultivation Considerations Presented by Nick Noble

  3. The Fruit • Genus Psidium • Family Myrtaceae • 100 Distinct Genera • Psidiumguajava (common guava) • Fruit • 4-12 cm berry • Distinct scent • Flesh is Red, Pink, White, or Yellow • Seeds

  4. The Tree • 10m tall, 6-7m apart, 250 trees/ha • Copper-colored bark (peels and flakes) • Extremely competitive • Most grown in wild • Insect-pollinated • Hardy • Provenance in Central America • Tropical diffusion • Timber uses

  5. The Business • Productivity of Viable Fruit • 1-3 years after establishment • Active for at least 30 years • Fresh Market– Handpicked • Processing – Machine-Harvested • Range of Guava-based Products • Cultivars • Temperate-Zone Availability

  6. The Nutrition • Established Nutritional Value • 400 mg Vitamin C • 1100 IU Vitamin A • Vitamin content mostly under skin • Phytochemicals • Nutrition: Fruit • Medicine: Root, Bark, Leaves • Most research in India • 2,571,000 MT/Y

  7. Phytochemicals in Guava Fruit • Reddy, et. al. (2010) • 14 Indian fruits • Total phenolic content (374mg/100g) • Antioxidant activity • DPPH radical scavenging (496mg/100g) • ABTS radical scavenging (891mg/100g) • Essential vitamins, minerals, & phytochemicals

  8. Phytochemicals in Guava Tree • Ayurvedic Precedent • Amrud / Pera • Medical Uses • Medicinal Properties • Relevant Phytochemicals • Alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpines, tannins, steroids, saponins, etc. • Drug Potential

  9. Carotenoids in Guava & Their Benefits to Health Presented by Jose Luis Perez

  10. Carotenoids Ja Jaswir et al. 2011, J. Med. Plant Res., 5,7119-7131

  11. Dutta et al. 2005, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4,1510-1520

  12. Ta Tanaka et al. 2012 Molecules, 17,3202-3242.

  13. Present in…

  14. Carotenoids in Guava Chandrika et al. 2009, Intl. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 60, 558-566.

  15. Anti-Neoplastic Evidence Bontempo et al. 2012, Cell Prolif., 45, 22-31.

  16. Anti-Neoplastic Evidence Bontempo et al. 2012, Cell Prolif., 45, 22-31.

  17. Anti-Neoplastic Evidence Bontempo et al. 2012, Cell Prolif., 45, 22-31.

  18. Anti-Neoplastic Evidence Bontempo et al. 2012, Cell Prolif., 45, 22-31.

  19. Anti-Neoplastic Evidence Bontempo et al. 2012, Cell Prolif., 45, 22-31.

  20. Lycopene Rich Guava Byproduct Extract Kong et al. 2010, Food Chem., 123, 1142-1148.

  21. Maturation Siqueira et al. 2011, Afri. J. Food Sci., 5, 320-323.

  22. Fresh vs Processed Wilberg et al. 1995, Lebensm.-Wiss. u. Techol., 28,474-480

  23. Storage and Lyophilized Ferreira et al. 2008, Food Chem., 78, c589-c594.

  24. At The Shop….. oliveira et al. 2010, J. Agric. Food Cem., 58, 6166-6172.

  25. Polyphenols in Guava & Their Benefits to Health Presented by PrernaBhargava

  26. Polyphenols • Polyphenols are the most abundant secondary metabolites in plant kingdom; more than 8000 structures have been deciphered. • Present in the food in the form of esters, glycosides, or polymers. • They are hydrolysed by intestinal enzymes or colonic microflora.

  27. Structures of Polyphenols

  28. Types of Polyphenols in Guava • Flavonoids : • phenylpropanoid pathway • yields cinnamic acid derivatives • precursors of flavonoids and lignans

  29. Tannins

  30. Phenolics : • the shikimic acid pathway • produces the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan • precursors of phenolic acids

  31. Identification of Polyphenols in Guava • Previous studies have concluded that there is presence of polyphenols in guava. • Conducted different tests.

  32. Results of ATBS and FRAP • ABTS test and FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) test, that guava leaf are a good source of natural antioxidant activities. • Guava leaf extract has a high EC value and shows potential to inhibit oxidation chain reaction by reduction of oxidized intermediates into stable products.

  33. The above graphs show the presence Free radical scavenging, Reducing power and Total Phenol content respectively. Tachakittirungrodet al., 2007, Food Chem.,103, 381–388.

  34. Commercially Guava is also available as ~Guava Tea

  35. Potential Benefits • Flavonoids – (guava leaf) - improve the shelf-life and the safety of foods in food industries. (Rattanachaikunsopon–Phumkhachorn, 2010) • Guaijaverin: - as natural antiplaque agents.(Prabuet al.,2006)

  36. Works Referenced • Samson, J. Guava. In Tropical Fruits. Longman: New York, NY, 1980; pp. 215-216. • Morton, J. Guava. In Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia F. Morton: Miami, FL, 1987; pp. 356–363. • Rice, R.; Rice, L.; Tindall, H. Guava. In Fruit and Vegetable Production in Warm Climates. Macmillan: London, UK, 1990: pp. 83-86. • Reddy, C.; Sreeramulu, D.; Raghuanath, M. Antioxidant activity of fresh and dry fruits commonly consumed in India. Food Research International. 2010, 43, 285-288. • nutritiondata.self.com • Sivarajan, V. Ayurvedia Drugs and Their Plant Sources. International Science: Lebanon, NH, 1994; 570 p. • Elekwa, I.; Okereke, S.; Ekpo, B. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations of the stem bark and leaves of Psidumguajava L.. J. Med.l Plants Res. 2009, 3(1), 45-48. • Kaneria, M.; Chanda, S. Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Leaves of Psidiumguajava L. (Myrtaceae). Pharmacognosy Journal. July 2011, 3(23), 41-45. • Rajoria, A.; Kumar, J.; Chauhan, A.K. Anti-oxidant and Anti-carcinogenic Role of Lycopene in Human Health. J. Dairying, Foods and H.S. 2010, 4, 157-165.\ • Johnson, E.J. The Role of Corotenoids in Human Health. Nutr. Clin. Care. 2002, 5, 56-65. • Roberts, R.L.; Green, J.; Lewis, B. Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Eye and Skin Health. ClinDerm. 2009,27, 195-201. • Lorenzo, Y.; Azqueta, A.,Luna, L.; Bonilla, F.; Dominguez, G.; Collins, A.R. The Carotenoid β-Cryptoxanthin Stimulates the Repair of DNA Oxidation Damage Addition to Acting as an Antioxidant in Human Cells. Carcinogenesis 2009, 30, 308-314. • Shirakura, Y.; Takayanagi, K.; Mukai, K; Tanabe, H.; Inoue, M. β-Cryptoxanthin Suppresses the Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells via RAR Activation. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2011, 57,426-4 • Fraser, P.D.; Bramley, P.M. The Biosynthesis and Nutritional Uses of Carotenoids. Prog. Lipid Res. 2004, 43, 228-265. • Marcadante, A.Z.; Steck, A.; Pfander, H. Carotenoids from guava (Psidiumguajava L.): Isolation and Structural Elucidation. J. Agri. Food. Chem. 1999, 47, 145-151. • Chandtika, U.G.; Fernando, K.S.S.P.; Ranaweera, K.K.D.S. Carotenoid content and invitroBioaccessibility of lycopene from guava (Psidiumguajava) and watermelon (Citrulluslanatus) by high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection. Intl. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2009, 60, 558-566. • Santos, C.A.F.; Correa, L.C. Antioxidant and Biochemical Content in Brazilian Guava Germplasm and White, Red and Pink Pulps. Acta Hort. 2012,959,125-130. • Bontempo, A.; Doto, A.; Miceli, M.; Mita, L.; Benedetti, R.; Nebbioso, M.; Veglione; M.; Rigano, D.; Cioffi, M., Sica, V.; Molinari, A.M.; Altucci, L. Psidiumguajava L. Antineoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation. Cell Prolif. 2012, 45, 22-31. • Kong, K-W.; Rajab. N.F.; Prasad, K.N.; Ismail, A., Markom, M., Tan, C-P. Lycopene-rich fraction derived from pink guava by-products and their potential activity towards hydrogenperoxide-induced celluar and DNA damage. Food Chem.2010,123,1142-1148. • KongK-W.; Ismail, A.; Tan, C.P.; Rajab, N.F. Optimization of oven drying conditions for lycopene content and lipophilic antioxidant capacity in a by-product of pink guava puree industry using response surface methodology. LWT-Food Sci. Techol. 2010, 43, 729-735. • Ferreira, J.E.M.; Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. Degredation of lycopene and β-carotene in model systems and in lyophilized Guava during, Ambient Storage: Kinetics, Structure, and Matrix Effects. Food Chem. 2008, 78, C589-C594. • Ordonez-Santos, L.E.; Vazquez-Riascos, A. Effect of Processing and Storage Time on the Vitamin C and Lycopene Contents of Nectar of Pink Guava (Psidiumguajava L.).Arch LatinoamericanosNutr. 2010, 60, 280-284. • Siqueira, A.M.A.; da Costa, J.M.C.; Afonso, M.R.A.; Clemente, E. Pigments of Guava Paluma Cultivar Stored Under Environmental Conditions. Afr. J. Food Sci. 2011, 5, 320-323. • Agati, G.; Azzarello, E; Pollastri,S.; Tattini,M. Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: Location and functional significance. Plant Sci. 2012, 196, 67-76. • NantitanonW.; Yotsawimonwat S.; Okonogi S.; Factors influencing antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of guava leaf extract. LWT - Food Sci. and Tech.. 2010, 43,1095-1103. • Tachakittirungrod, S.; Okonogi,.; Chowwanapoonpohn,S; Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chem. 2007, 103, 381–388 • Bravo,L. Polyphenols: Chemistry, Dietary Sources, Metabolism, and Nutritional Significance; Nutr Rev 2009, 56,11 • HarborneJB. Methods in plant biochemistry, I: plant phenolics; London: Aca Press; 1989 • Sriwilaijaroen,N; Fukumoto ,S.; Kumagai, K.; Hiramatsu,H.; Odagiri,T.; Tashiro,M.; Suzuki,Y.; Antiviral effects of Psidiumguajava Linn. (guava) tea on the growth of clinical isolated H1N1 viruses: Its role in viral hemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition. Antiviral Res. 2012 94,139–146 • Tattini,M.; Guidi,L.; Morassi-Bonzi,L.; Pinelli, P.; Remorini, D.; Degl’Innocenti,E.; Giordano, C.; Massai, R.; Agati,G. On the role of flavonoids in the integrated mechanisms of response of Ligustrumvulgare and Phillyrealatifolia to high solar radiation. New Phytol.,2005, 167 ,457–470 • Chen, X.; Beutler, J.A.; McCloud T.G.; Loehfelm, A.;Yang, L.; Dong, H.F.; Chertov, O.Y.; Salcedo, R.; Oppenheim, J.J.; Howard, O.M. Tannic acid is an inhibitor of CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha)/CXCR4 with antiangiogenic activity. Clin. Cancer Res.2003, 9,3115–3123.

  37. Any Questions?

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