grammar english ii n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Grammar: English II PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Grammar: English II

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Grammar: English II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 124 Views
  • Uploaded on

Grammar: English II. Spring 2012. 1) Subject-verb agreement 2) Noun , verb, & prepositional phrase 3) Modifiers: Dangling & Misplaced 4) Pronoun-antecedent agreement 5) Shifts in Tense & Voice . Subject-verb agreement. 8 /20 Grammar #1.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Grammar: English II' - jett


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

1) Subject-verb agreement

2) Noun, verb, & prepositional phrase

3) Modifiers: Dangling & Misplaced

4) Pronoun-antecedent agreement 5) Shifts in Tense & Voice

subject verb agreement
Subject-verb agreement

8/20 Grammar #1

slide4

*A singular subject takes a singular verb, while

a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Examples

  • A bike and a scooter(is, are) my means of getting around until I get a car.
  • The principal, along with a bunch of teachers, (is, are) getting ready for a snow day.
rules
RULES

1. If subjects are joined by and, they are considered plural.

Ex. The quarterback and the coach are having a conference.

2. If subjects are joined by orornor, the verb should agree with the closer subject

Ex: Either the actors or the director is at fault.

Ex: Either the director or the actors are at fault.

slide6
Indefinite pronouns - SINGULAR

None?  Singular or Plural?

  • Someone
  • Somebody
  • Each
  • Either one
  • Everyone
  • Anyone

Apparently, the SAT testing service considers none as a singular word only. However, according to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "Clearly none has been both singular and plural since Old English and still is. The notion that it is singular only is a myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen in the 19th century. If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are acceptable beyond serious criticism" (p. 664).

None of us ( is / are ) going to see Transformers 3.

slide7

Three-quarters of the students (is, are) against the detention policy. 

  • Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator (is, are) going to have to make a decision. 
  • Either the chief administrator in this hospital or the physicians (is, are) going to have to make a decision.
  • Kara Cannon, together with her teammates, (present, presents) a formidable opponent on the basketball court.  
  • Everyone selected to serve on this jury (has, have) to be willing to give up a lot of time.
slide8

Are

  • Is
  • Are
  • Presents
  • Has
slide10

What is a noun?

  • What is a verb?
  • What is a preposition?
  • A word which refers to a thing, person, or idea
  • word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence
  • words that help describe something's location or other information
preposition examples
Preposition examples
  • about
  • above
  • across
  • after
  • against
  • along
  • among
  • around
  • at
  • before
  • behind
  • below
  • beneath
  • beside
  • between
  • by
  • down
  • during
  • except
  • for
  • from
  • in
  • in front of
  • inside
  • instead of
  • into
  • like
  • near
  • of
  • off
  • on
  • onto
  • on top of
  • out of
  • outside
  • over
  • past
  • since
  • through
  • to
  • toward
  • under
  • underneath
  • until
  • up
  • upon
  • with
  • within
  • without
n v or p
N, V, or P?
  • Table
  • In
  • Around
  • Swimming
  • Friendship
  • Google
phrase
Phrase
  • such as leafy vegetables
  • in sickness and in health
  • on one’s personality
  • for a long time

Phrase –

a group of words that is missing a subject or a verb or both; always a dependent clause.

slide14

Prepositional phrase – consists of a preposition & it’s object

        • Can remove Prep phrase, sentence still makes sense

Examples

  • At home
  • In time for dinner
  • About what we need
  • Underneath the school

Error?

where are the prep phrases
Where are the Prep Phrases?

7. The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam.

8. The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold.

9. The note from Beverly confessed that she had eaten the leftover pizza.

slide17

What is a modifier?

    • words or phrases that modify something else
slide18

What’s the difference between these two sentences?

  • I almost failed every art class I took.
  • I failed almost every art class I took.
  • I ate only vegetables.
  • I only ate vegetables.
  • Children who laugh rarely are shy.
slide19
Fix
  • Covered in wildflowers, Timmy was struck by the beauty of the hill.
  • Hiking the trail, the birds chirped loudly.
  • For sale: An antique desk suitable for a lady with thick legs and large drawers.
  • When purchasing a cellular phone, the wide variety of calling plans and features overwhelms many people
slide21
Pronoun

Antecedent

  • A substitute for a noun
  • Examples:
    • He / She
    • It
    • Them
    • They
  • The noun that the pronoun refers to
slide22

I like SpongeBob SquarePants; it is a good show.

  • Jake naturally attracted all of the ladies; he was known for making them go crazy.

antecedent

pronoun

antecedent

pronoun

antecedent

pronoun

what s wrong here
What’s wrong here?
  • During early rehearsals, an actor may forget their lines.
  • Vicky and Alicia swam ( her / their ) best times on Friday.
  • Some of the sugar fell out of ( its / their ) bag.
  • Everyone had (his or her/ their) own Snickers bar.

Pronoun-Antecedent disagreement!

pronouns and antecedents must agree in number
Pronouns and antecedents must agree in number!

Singular

Plural

  • Each
  • Either/neither
  • One
  • No one
  • Nobody
  • Nothing
  • Anyone
  • Anybody
  • Anything
  • Someone
  • Somebody
  • Something
  • Everyone
  • Everybody
  • Everything
  • Several
  • Few
  • Both
  • Many
  • Others
slide25

The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break.

  • A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year.
  • The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document.
  • Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited.
  • If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, (he or she, you) has/have to know the rules of the game.
answers
ANSWERS
  • It
  • His or Her
  • Their
  • Its
  • He or she
what s wrong with these sentences
What’s wrong with these sentences?
  • Sarah was ostracized by the rest of the cheerleaders. They believe that her behavior was an embarrassment to the entire team.
  • Sarah was ostracized by the rest of the cheerleaders. They believe that her behavior was an embarrassment to the entire team.

Tense shift!

verb shift
Verb Shift
  • Just don’t do it!
  • Read it aloud and check to make sure it works
problem
Problem?
  • When they stopped to ask for directions, the gas station attendant's advice was so confusing that you could never find the restaurant where the reception was being held.
  • When they stopped to ask for directions, the gas station attendant's advice was so confusing that you could never find the restaurant where the reception was being held.

Voice Shift!

slide31

When the children turned on the TV, a buzzing sound was heard.

When the children turned on the TV, they heard a buzzing sound.

Active voice

Passive voice

Active voice

Active voice

fix it
Fix it

1. Frequently, a personexercises to relieve stress. As a result, people sometimes become psychologically dependent on excessive exercising. 

Suggestion: Frequently, people exercise to relieve stress and, as a result, sometimes become psychologically dependent on excessive exercising.

2.  Off campus students should use the bus system because you get frustrated trying to park every day.

fix it1
Fix it

By the time Paul arrived at the house it is too late. The door was open, the light was on and his wife has disappeared. People are still walking home from work and the sidewalk in front of his house pulsedwith a slow but steady stream of neighbors who stared at him as they passed. In the twilight the streetlamp’s glow casts dim and surreal highlights on the odd assortment of objects in his yard, the treadmill and the ten potted plants arranged in alphabetical order on the front walk. Looking back furtively over his shoulder as he folds the treadmill and secured its dangling electrical cord, Paul gives the impression of some agitation as he pushed the machine through the door and into the foyer of his home. One of the pots is an inch and a half out of alignment. Sighing, he nudged it into place and picked up a leaf that fell when the pot moved.

answers1
ANSWERS!

By the time Paul arrived at the house it was too late. The door was open, the light was on and his wife had disappeared. People werestill walking home from work and the sidewalk in front of his house pulsedwith a slow but steady stream of neighbors who stared at him as they passed. In the twilight the streetlamp’s glow cast dim and surreal highlights on the odd assortment of objects in his yard, the treadmill and the ten potted plants arranged in alphabetical order on the front walk. Looking back furtively over his shoulder as he folded the treadmill and secured its dangling electrical cord, Paul gave the impression of some agitation as he pushedthe machine through the door and into the foyer of his home. One of the pots was an inch and a half out of alignment. Sighing, he nudged it into place and picked up a leaf that had fallen when the pot moved.

grammar review
Grammar Review

3/14 & 15 Do Now #11

slide36

Modifiers: Dangling & Misplaced

  • Noun, verb, & prepositional phrase
  • Pronoun-antecedent agreement
  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Shifts in Tense & Voice
grammar mistakes 1
Grammar mistakes #1
  • The two main goals of my life are to be generous and to have no regrets. I hoped I could follow them forever.
  • If someone wants to play games, you must follow the rules.
grammar mistakes 2
Grammar mistakes #2
  • Having finished writing the essay, Facebook was immediately opened to brag.
  • She handed out brownies to children wrapped in Tupperware.
grammar mistakes 3
Grammar mistakes #3
  • Through the skies, (soars/soar) the fighter jets.
  • Everyone in the group (shouts/shout) when they see meteors in the sky.
grammar mistakes 4
Grammar mistakes #4
  • One of the students must give (their, his) oral report tomorrow.
  • When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly.
noun verb prepositional phrases1
Noun, verb, prepositional phrases

Noun phrase?

  • The penguin is the most feared animal in the bird kingdom.

Prepositional phrase?

  • She wanted to go to the movies.

Verb phrase?

  • Chocolate should be served at room temperature.