Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division

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  1. Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division

  2. Limits to Cell Growth • The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA and more trouble the cell has moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane

  3. Growing Cells 1µ 2µ 3µ 4µ 6 5µ 6µ

  4. How are surface area and volume affected by growth

  5. DNA “Overload” • In Eukaryotic Cells, DNA is found in the nucleus • As a cell increases in size, it does not make extra copies of DNA • “Information Crisis” would occur if a cell was to grow without limit • In time, the cell’s DNA would no longer be able to serve the increasing needs of the growing cells

  6. DNA “Overload” • There is another reason why the size of cells are limited. • The rate of exchange depends on the surface area of the cell. • The total area of its Cells Membrane • Rate at which food and oxygen are used and waste products are produced depends on a cell’s volume

  7. DNA “Overload” • Volume increases much more rapidly then the surface area • It would be more difficult for a larger cell to get oxygen and nutrients in and waste products out.

  8. Cell Division Process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells • Before it becomes too large, a growing cell divides forming two “ Daughter” cells • The cell replicates, or copies its DNA • Each daughter cell receives its own genetic “library”

  9. Chromosomes • Genetic information is passed on by chromosomes • Chromosomes are made up of DNA and Proteins • Cells of every organism have a specific number of chromosomes • Chromosomes are not visible except during cells division • Chromosomes condense at the beginning of cell division

  10. Chromosomes • Each chromosome s is replicated before cell division because of this, each chromosome consists of two identical “Sister” chromatids

  11. Chromatids • Attach at the centromere located near the middle of the chromatids

  12. Cell Cycle • A series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide • During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form tow daughter cells, each of which then begins the cycle again

  13. Mitosis IPrefer Mangos And Tangerines • Biologists divide the events of mitosis into phases: • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase

  14. Mitosis in ActionBlue shows DNA, Green shows spindle fibers

  15. Interphase • Has three phases: G1, S, & G2 • G1 – Cells do most of their growing • S- Chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA molecules take place • G2 – shortest phase organelles and molecules required for cell divisions are produced

  16. Prophase • The longest and first phase • Chromosomes becomes visible • Centrioles separated and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus • Centrioles help organize the spindle: • Fan like microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes

  17. Metaphase • The second phase • Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

  18. Anaphase • The third phase • He centromeres separate allowing the sister chromaids to separate

  19. Telophase • The final phase • The chromosomes begin t disperse into a tangle of dense material • A nuclear envelope reforms • Spindle begins to break apart • Nucleolus becomes visible • Mitosis is complete

  20. Cytokinesis • Division of the cytoplasm itself • Occurs at the same time as telophase

  21. Cell Cycle Regulators • Cyclin • Protein that regulates the cell cycle • Regulate the timing of the cell cycle in Eukaryotic cells

  22. Internal Regulators • Protein that respond to events inside the cell are called Internal Regulators

  23. External regulators • Proteins that respond to events outside the cell are called external regulators • Direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle

  24. Uncontrolled Cell Growth • Cancer • A disorder in which some the body’s own cells lose the ability to control growth • Cancers cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells • As a result, they form masses of cells called Tumors that can damage for surrounding tissues.

  25. Cancerous Tumor