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A2 Religious Ethics Revision

A2 Religious Ethics Revision

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A2 Religious Ethics Revision

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  1. A2 Religious Ethics Revision Conscience 4

  2. Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939)

  3. best known for his analysis of the human psyche or mind

  4. He believed that the key to human behaviour was in people’s instincts and desires

  5. Behaving instinctively is often contrary to the interests of the community.

  6. Freud Because of this, people disapprove of certain types of behaviour

  7. Freud Remember the young child playing in the bath and his mother’s disapproval?

  8. Consequently, instinctive desires and behaviour are suppressed from an early age

  9. and individuals develop an EGO with which to interact with society

  10. At the same time society’s disapproval of ‘inappropriate’ behaviour is internalised by the SUPER-EGO

  11. Super-Ego? This internalisation deals with the ego’s suppressed anger and bewilderment at the requirements of society

  12. Super-Ego? This internal suppression leads to the development of a guilty conscience

  13. Super-Ego? Freud also suggested that a child identifies closely with its parent

  14. Super-Ego? The ‘super-ego’ becomes an ‘inner parent’

  15. Super-Ego? rewarding the good behaviour and punishing the bad

  16. Super-Ego? Remember Hitchcock’s film, ‘Psycho’?

  17. Super-Ego? “Yes, mother. . .” (even though she was no more than a mummified corpse!)

  18. The Super-Ego divides into the Ego-Ideal and Conscience

  19. Ego-Ideal represents the ‘rewarding’ parent leading to feelings of pride and satisfaction

  20. Conscience represents the ‘punishing’ parent’ causes feelings of guilt and discomfort for immoral acts

  21. Freud’s analysis of human behaviour is often seen to be discredited by his elaborate account of the effects of sexuality on the psychological development of human beings

  22. However, others have developed Freud’s ideas

  23. They argue that conscience develops through past experiences, especially those of childhood

  24. Children learn their behaviour from their parents, carers and teachers

  25. Parents encourage good behaviour and punish bad

  26. The way they do this affects the moral development of the child

  27. The admonishments can be displays of anger, disappointment or even controlled violence (i.e. a smack)

  28. The child becomes anxious as it tries to avoid the displeasure of the adult

  29. Eventually this anxiety is felt when the child even thinks about an immoral act

  30. This - for Freudians and some modern psychologists - is the conscience